BIO-240 FA5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 5.1: Marine Geology, Chemical Oceanography, Physical Oceanography

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1.1 How Are Earth’s Oceans Unique?
Earth’s Amazing Oceans
Earth’s oceans have provided a vast environment for evolution
They contain the world’s greatest number of living life forms
They continually impact climate change
Earth’s oceans also take carbon dioxide gas and replaces it with oxygen gas - oceans
supply over 70% of our oxygen
Unfortunately, the oceans have become a vast dumping ground, which impacts our
climate and other important aspects
How Many Oceans Exist on Earth?
The world ocean is very vast and interconnected
All of the oceans combined make up for 97.2% of the world’s water on or near the
Earth’s surface
The Four Principal Oceans, Plus One
The world’s oceans can be divided into four plus one:
The Pacific Ocean
World’s largest and deepest ocean
Named by Magellan in honor of the fine weather he experienced (paci = peace)
The Atlantic Ocean
Half the size of the Pacific ocean and not as deep
Separated Europe, Asia, and Africa from North and South America
Named after Greek Titan, Atlas
The Indian Ocean
Smaller than the Atlantic Ocean and just as deep
Mostly in the Southern Hemisphere
Named because it was near India
The Arctic Ocean
7% the size of the Pacific Ocean and is about one quarter as deep as the other
oceans
Is covered by a permanent layer of ice only a few meters thick
Located in the Arctic Region
Southern Ocean, or Antarctic Ocean
Portions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans meeting near Antarctica
Located in the Southern Hemisphere
Oceans versus Seas
Sea and ocean can be used interchangeably
However, a sea is defined as follows:
Smaller and shallower than an ocean
Composed of salt water
Somewhat enclosed by land
Directly connected to the world ocean
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1.3 What Is Oceanography?
Oceanography means the description of the marine environment
It’s more accurately the study of the marine environment, which is why it should really be
oceanology
Oceanography is broken up into four main sections:
Geological oceanography: the study of the structure of the sea floor and how it
has changed through time
Chemical oceanography: the study of chemical composition and properties of
seawater
Physical oceanography: study of waves, tides, and currents; the ocean---
atmosphere relationships that influences weather and climate; and the
transmission of light and sound in the oceans
Biological oceanography: study of various oceanic life-forms and their
relationship to one another, their adaptations to the marine environment, and
developing sustainable methods of harvesting seafood
1.4 What Is the Nature of Scientific Inquiry?
Science’s goal is to discover underlying patterns to make predictions about what should
or should not be expected to happen
Scientific inquiry is best formalized in scientific method
Observations:
Things we can measure with our senses (see, touch, hear, smell, taste, or
manipulate)
If an observation is repeated it can be called a scientific fact
Hypothesis:
As humans, we try to make sense of our observations (by making hypotheses)
A hypotheses is a tentative, testable statement about the general nature of an
observation
Testing:
Testing can only be observed after analyzation of observation
For example: if a whale with more parasites breaches more than one without
parasites, it can be concluded that this test supports the hypothesis that
breaching has to do with dislodging parasites
Only after formal testing of data can scientific method move onto the next step
Theory:
Hypotheses strengthened by additional observations are turned into theory
Theories are only viable after years and years of testing, reevaluating, and
scrutiny
Theories and the Truth
Science never reaches an absolute truth
With different observations and technological advances (and other factors),
theories are never just stated as absolute truth because things are always
changing
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Document Summary

Earth"s oceans have provided a vast environment for evolution. They contain the world"s greatest number of living life forms. Earth"s oceans also take carbon dioxide gas and replaces it with oxygen gas - oceans supply over 70% of our oxygen. Unfortunately, the oceans have become a vast dumping ground, which impacts our climate and other important aspects. The world ocean is very vast and interconnected. All of the oceans combined make up for 97. 2% of the world"s water on or near the. The world"s oceans can be divided into four plus one: Named by magellan in honor of the fine weather he experienced (paci = peace) Half the size of the pacific ocean and not as deep. Separated europe, asia, and africa from north and south america. Smaller than the atlantic ocean and just as deep. 7% the size of the pacific ocean and is about one quarter as deep as the other oceans.

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