BIO-240 FA5 Chapter 2.1-2.4: Ch. 2.1-2.4 Key Terms

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Key Terms:
Asthenosphere - a plastic layer in the upper mantle 80 to 200 kilometers (50 to 124
miles) deep that may allow lateral movement of lithospheric plates and isostatic
adjustments
Atoll - a ring-shaped coral reef growing upward from a submerged volcanic peak. It may
have low lying islands composed of coral debris
Barrier reef - a coral reef separated from the nearby landmass by open water
Continental arc - an arc-shaped row of active volcanoes produced by subduction that
occurs along the convergent active continental margins
Convection cell - a circular-moving loop of matter involved in convective movement
Convergent plate boundary - a lithospheric plate boundary where adjacent plates
converge, producing ocean trench-island arc systems, ocean trench-continental arcs, or
folded mountain ranges
Coral reef - a calcareous organic reef significantly of solid coral and coral sand. Algae
may be responsible for more than half of the CaCO3 reef material. Found in waters
where the minimum average monthly is 18 degrees celsius or higher
Divergent plate boundary - a lithospheric plate boundary where adjacent plates diverge,
producing an oceanic ridge or rise (spreading center)
East Pacific Rise - A fast-spreading divergent plate boundary extending southward from
the Gulf of California through the eastern South Pacific Ocean
Fringing reefs - a reef that is directly attached to the shore of an island or continent. It
may extend more than 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) from shore. The outer margin is
submerged and often consists of algal limestone, coral rock , or living coral
Guyot - see tablemount
Heat flow (flux) - the quantity of heat floor to Earth’s surface per unit of time
Hotspot - the relativity stationary surface expression of a persistent column of molten
mantle rising to the surface
Ice Age - the most recent glacial period, which occurred during the Pleistocene Epoch of
geologic time
Igneous rock - one of the three main classes into which all rocks are divided (igneous,
metamorphic, and sedimentary). Igneous rock forms from the solidification of molten or
partly molten material (magma)
Intraplate feature - any feature that occurs within a tectonic plate and not along a plate
boundary
Island arc - a linear arrangement of islands, many of which are volcanic, usually curved
so that the concave sides face a sea separating the islands from a continent. The
convex sides face the open ocean and is bounded by a deep-ocean trench
Lava - fluid magma coming from an opening in Earth’s surface, or the same material
after it solidifies
Lithosphere - the outer layer of Earth’s structure including the crust and the upper mantle
to a depth of about 200 kilometers (124 miles). Lithospheric plates are the major
components involved in plate tectonic movement
Loihi - the name of the volcanically active submerged seamount that is located southeast
of the island of Hawaii
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Document Summary

Asthenosphere - a plastic layer in the upper mantle 80 to 200 kilometers (50 to 124 miles) deep that may allow lateral movement of lithospheric plates and isostatic adjustments. Atoll - a ring-shaped coral reef growing upward from a submerged volcanic peak. It may have low lying islands composed of coral debris. Barrier reef - a coral reef separated from the nearby landmass by open water. Continental arc - an arc-shaped row of active volcanoes produced by subduction that occurs along the convergent active continental margins. Convection cell - a circular-moving loop of matter involved in convective movement. Convergent plate boundary - a lithospheric plate boundary where adjacent plates converge, producing ocean trench-island arc systems, ocean trench-continental arcs, or folded mountain ranges. Coral reef - a calcareous organic reef significantly of solid coral and coral sand. Algae may be responsible for more than half of the caco3 reef material.

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