BIO-240 FA5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Gravity Current, Turbidite, Pillow Lava

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Key Terms
abyssal hill - a volcanic peak rising less than 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) above the ocean
floor
abyssal hill province - a deep-ocean region, particularly in the Pacific Ocean, where
oceanic sedimentation rates are so low that abyssal plains do not form and the ocean
floor is covered with abyssal hills
active margin - a continental margin marked by a high degree of tectonic activity, such
as those typical of the Pacific Rim. Types of active margins include convergent active
margins (marked by plate convergence) and transform active margins (marked by
transform faulting)
Bathymetry - the measurement of ocean depth
black smoker - a hydrothermal vent on the ocean floor that emits a black cloud of hot
water filled with dissolved metal particles
continental arc - an arc-shaped row of active volcanoes produced by subduction that
occurs along the convergent active continental margins
continental borderland - a highly irregular portion of the continental margin that is
submerged beneath the ocean and is characterized by depths greater than those
characteristics of the continental shelf
continental margin - the submerged area next to a continent comprising the continental
shelf, continental slope, and continental rise
continental rise - a gently sloping depositional surface at the base of the continental
slope
continental shelf - a gently sloping depositional surface extending from the low water line
to the depth of a marked increase in slope around the margin of a continent or island
continental slope - a relatively steeply sloping surface lying seaweed of the continental
shelf
deep-ocean basin - areas of the ocean floor that have deep water, are far from land, and
are underlain by basaltic crust
deep-sea fans - a large fan-shaped deposit commonly found on the continental rise
seaward of such sediment-laden rivers as the Amazon, Indus, and Ganges-
Brahmaputra. Also known as a submarine fan
echo sounder - a device that transmits sounds from a ship’s hull to the ocean floor where
it is reflected back to receivers. The speed of sound in the water is known, so the depth
can be determined from the travel time of the sound signal
Fathom (fm) - a unit of depth in the ocean, commonly used in countries using the English
system of units. It is equal to 1.83 meters (6 feet)
fracture zones - an extensive linear zone of unusually irregular topography of the ocean
floor, characterized by large seamounts, steep-sided or asymmetrical ridges, troughs, or
long, steep slopes. Usually represents ancient, inactive transform fault zones
graded bedding - stratification in which each layer displays a decrease in grain size from
bottom to top
hydrothermal vents - ocean water that percolates down through fractures in recently
formed ocean floor is heated by underlying magma and surfaces again through these
vents. They are usually located near the axis of spreading along the mid-ocean range
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Document Summary

Abyssal hill - a volcanic peak rising less than 1 kilometer (0. 6 miles) above the ocean floor. Abyssal hill province - a deep-ocean region, particularly in the pacific ocean, where oceanic sedimentation rates are so low that abyssal plains do not form and the ocean floor is covered with abyssal hills. Active margin - a continental margin marked by a high degree of tectonic activity, such as those typical of the pacific rim. Types of active margins include convergent active margins (marked by plate convergence) and transform active margins (marked by transform faulting) Bathymetry - the measurement of ocean depth. Black smoker - a hydrothermal vent on the ocean floor that emits a black cloud of hot water filled with dissolved metal particles. Continental arc - an arc-shaped row of active volcanoes produced by subduction that occurs along the convergent active continental margins.

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