BIO-240 FA5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4.1-4.6: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Ocean Drilling Program, Deep Sea Drilling Project

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abyssal clay - deep-ocean (oceanic) deposits containing less than 30% biogenous
sediment. Often oxidized and red in color, thus commonly termed red clay
Algae - primarily aquatic, eurkaryotic, photosynthetic organisms that have no root, stem,
or leaf systems. Can be microscopic and macroscopic
Aragonite - a form of CaCO3 that is less common and less stable than calcite. Pteropod
shells are usually composed of aragonite
biogenous sediment - sediment containing material produced by plants or animals, such
as coral reefs, shell fragments, and housing of diatoms, radiolarians, foraminifers, and
coccolithophores; components can be either microscopic or macroscopic
Calcite - a mineral with the chemical formula CaCO3
calcite compensation depth (CCD) - the depth at which the amount of calcite (CaCO3)
produced by the organisms in the overlying water column is equal to the amount of
calcite the water column can dissolve.
calcium carbonate - a chalklike substance secreted by many organisms in the form of
coverings or skeletal structures
Chalk - a soft, comopact form of calcite, generally gray-white or yellow-white in color and
derived chiefly from microscopic fossils
Coccolithophores - a microscopic planktonic form of algae encased by a covering
composed of calcareous discs (coccoliths)
Coccoliths - tiny calcareous discs averaging about 3 microns (0.00012 inch) in diameter
that form the cell wall of coccolithophores
Cores - (1) The deep, central layer of Earth, composed primarily of iron and nickel. It is
subdivided into a liquid outer core 2270 kilometers (1410 miles) thick and a solid inner
core with a radius of 1216 kilometers (756 miles). (2) A cylinder of sediment and/or rock
material usually obtained by drilling
cosmogenous sediment - sediment derived from outer space
Deep Sea Drilling Project - a seafloor drilling program initiated in 1968 that was designed
to obtain cores from the deep sea; it was the predecessor to the Ocean Drilling Program
(ODP) and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP)
diatomaceous earth - a deposit composed primarily of the tests of diatoms mixed with
clay. Also called diatomite
Diatoms - a member of the class Bacillariophyceae of algae that possesses a wall of
overlapping silica valves
evaporite minerals - a sedimentary deposit that is left behind when water evaporates;
also known as evaporite minerals, which include gypsum, calcite, and halite
Foraminifers - an order of planktonic and benthic protozoans that possess protective
coverings, usually composed of calcium carbonate
glacial deposits - a sedimentary deposit formed by a glacier and characterized by poor
sorting
grain size - the average size of the grains of material in a sample. Also known as
fragment or particle size
hydrogenous sediment - sediment that forms precipitation from ocean water or ion
exchange between existing sediment and ocean water. Examples are manganese
nodules, metal sulfides, and evaporites
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Document Summary

Abyssal clay - deep-ocean (oceanic) deposits containing less than 30% biogenous sediment. Often oxidized and red in color, thus commonly termed red clay. Algae - primarily aquatic, eurkaryotic, photosynthetic organisms that have no root, stem, or leaf systems. Aragonite - a form of caco3 that is less common and less stable than calcite. Biogenous sediment - sediment containing material produced by plants or animals, such as coral reefs, shell fragments, and housing of diatoms, radiolarians, foraminifers, and coccolithophores; components can be either microscopic or macroscopic. Calcite - a mineral with the chemical formula caco3. Calcite compensation depth (ccd) - the depth at which the amount of calcite (caco3) produced by the organisms in the overlying water column is equal to the amount of calcite the water column can dissolve. Calcium carbonate - a chalklike substance secreted by many organisms in the form of coverings or skeletal structures.

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