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Chapter 12.3

CSD-2259 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12.3: Primary Progressive Aphasia, Neurodegeneration, Dysarthria


Department
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Course Code
CSD-2259
Professor
Sheila Temple
Chapter
12.3

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o Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS)
Defining characteristics
A phoneticmotoric disorder of speech production
Unable to translate linguistic of phonetic info concerning speech
production into accurate motor behaviors or are unable to learn
the motor behaviors to execute planned speech
Same symptoms as those of AOS
Severe unintelligibility and progress slowly in speech therapy
Causes and risk factors
Not well understood
Fragile x syndrome
o Primary progressive Apraxia of Speech (PPAOS)
Defining characteristics
AOS that presents as the primary manifestation of a progressive
neurodegenerative disease
Overlooked and subsumed under the diagnosis of primary
progressive aphasia (PPA)
Risk factors
PPAOs results from cortical atrophy due to neurodegenerative
disease
o Acquired dysarthria
A group of speech disorders cause by disturbances of neuromuscular
control of the speech production systems
A disruption in the execution of speech movements
Results from underlying neuromuscular disturbances in muscle tone,
reflexes, and kinematic aspects of movement such as speed, range,
accuracy, and steadiness
Generally more consistent in type and presence of errors and amount of
intelligibility than apraxic speech
Muscle tone refers to the resistance of muscles to passive movement and
reflects sustained muscle activity that provides postural support for
active movements
Muscle strength refers to the ability of the muscle to contract to a
desired level and may be reduced
Movement steadiness refers to the ability of the muscle to contract to a
desired level and may be reduced, as in flaccid dysarthria
Tremor is a relatively rhythmic, repetitive movement
Hyperkinesis can take many different forms but generally involves
relatively arrhythmic and unpredictable movements
Movement speed is important for speech production, which involves
many rapid articulator movements, may be reduced, as in spastic
dysarthria
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