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Chapter 2

CDE 232 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Sandra Scarr, Phenotype

Child Development
Course Code
CDE 232
Alicia Woodbury

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Humans are about 99% identical, less than 1% differs, yet look how different we are
Genotypes & Phenotypes
Genotype – an individual's genetic heritage, the actual genetic material
Blueprint for POTENTIAL characteristics
just a guideline, like a pool design
by looking at DNA, identify gender, disease etc...
environmental factors contribute.
Phenotype – the way an individual's genotype is expressed in observable & measurable
Physical traits; psychological characteristics
For each genotype, a range of phenotypes can be expressed
based on environment
Reaction Range
The range of possible phenotypes for each genotype
Importance of an environment's restrictiveness or richness
DNA gives you potential, then environment goes into control
Interaction between Genes & Environment
Typically we think about how our environment influences the expression of our genes
Environment → Genes
Better nutrition can help us reach maximum height allowed by our genes
Genes also influence the types of environments to which they are exposed
Genes → Environment
Sandra Scarr described 3 ways they are related
Passively, Evocatively, Actively
vary in how salient they are across the lifespan
Passive Gene-Environment Interaction
Occur when biological parents provide a rearing environment that matches their own
genetic tendencies & their child inherits genetic tendencies
parents that are good readers, raise children in a reading environment, usually not
conscious decision, automatically produce skillful readers as kids
Evocative Gene-Environment Interaction
Occur because an individual's genotype elicits certain types of physical and social
Social, active, smiling children receive more social stimulation than passive, quite
A tall girl encouraged to play basketball or volleyball
Active (Niche-Picking) Gene-Environment Interaction
Occur when individuals seek out environments they find compatible and stimulating
Niche-picking – finding a setting that is suited to one's abilities
Teens who are musically inclined select musical environments in which they can
successfully perform their skills
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