Lessons Learned Along The Way
◦ No users, therefore, no need for designing
◦ Lesson 1: Place, People, and process
1. Designing is not a recent phenomenon
2. Not limited to designers
3. Design/designing occurs where people live
‣ Contextual influence occurs in ways that are physical & metaphysical.
• Metaphysical qualities: cultural values & other belief systems may not be as
tangible as physical materials but important.
• Not black magic
• Scope of design
◦ Lesson 2: context & culture
‣ Young man of Sikh faith accepted into Royal Canadian Mounted Police (equal to
FBI in Canada). Refused to wear the dress uniform hat because of his turban.
‣ Designing Triad includes context as an essential component because designing
always occurs in Context & culture is clearly a part of the Context.
‣ The clothes we wear have a connection to our culture, as well as, food, habits,
and values used.
‣ We associate with high culture and be more appropriate to designing
‣ Scottish designer & architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh was inspired by
Japanese art & artifacts.
‣ Many Art Nouveau designers found sources of visual inspiration from objects
discovered in tomb of Tutankhamen when unearthed in 1922.
• Edward T. Hall identified many if these facets of time
◦ Biological time
◦ Personal time
◦ Cultural time
◦ Micro time
◦ Sacred time
• Watch making still big part of Swiss economy
• Monochromic (m-time) defines an attitude to time that emphasizes measurable
properties of time.
• Polychromic (p-time) is opposite where everything happens at once.
• Proxemics - study of interrelationship of people & space
• Role of human olfactory apparatus
• Blandness & predictability
• Hall's Proxemic Spheres of Space
◦ Public, social, personal, & intimate
• Hall's theory
◦ Intimate Distance - physical contact, vision out of focus, olfactory sense
important, touch sense important, whispered. ◦ Personal Distance - friends, colleagues, some physical contact, vision in
focus, olfactory sense not as important, touch sense not as important,
◦ Social Distance - no physical contact, vision in focus, olfactory sense not
important, touch sense not important, raised voice at times.
◦ Public Distance - no physical contact, vision in focus, olfactory sense not as
important, touch sense not as important, amplified voice.
• Proxemics in Practice
‣ Lesson 3: It's About the Toast, Not the Toaster
• Chief Designer at Porsche in Germany, Tony Lepine
• New urbanism
‣ Lesson 4: Fits & Misfits
• Koen de Winter is chief designer at Danesco
• Created a teapot even though the previous model was still perfectly functional
• Christopher Alexander postulated that designing occurs on a kind of
• One end of this continuum is designing as expression of self, while, other is
designing occurs as recognition of misfits in unselfconscious cultures
• Birch back canoe is another every