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Chapter 2

IFT 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Chrome Os, Portable Computer, Laptop

Information Technology
Course Code
IFT 100
David Shafer

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Chapter 2: Looking at Computers: Understanding the Parts
1) Computers Are Data Processing Devices
a) Computer: data processing device that performs four major functions:
i) Input: Gathers data or allows users to enter data
ii) Process: manipulates, calculates, or organizes data into info
iii) Storage: saves data and information for later use
b) Data vs Information
i) Data: representation or fact; figure or an idea
(1) Can be numbers, words, a picture, or a recording of a sound
ii) Information: data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion.
(1) Contact listings; when data becomes useful, it is information.
iii) Computer Interaction + Data/Information
(1) Computers are excellent at processing: manipulating calculating, and
organizing data into information.
(a) Ex: information processed for an ID card
2) Bits and Bytes: Language of Computers
a) How do computers process data:
i) Computers work strictly with numbers. They use a language called binary.
(1) Binary language: consists of just two digits: 0 and 1.
(2) Binary Digit: each 0 and 1; bit for short.
(a) Eight binary digits or bits combine to create a bye.
(b) Each letter or symbol on keyboard consists of a unique
combination of eight bits, or a string of eight 0s and 1s.
(i) Ex: K is represented as 01001011
b) Other uses of Bits and Bytes
i) Computers use hardware and software to process data into information that lets
you complete tasks
(1) Hardware: any part of the computer you can physically touch
(2) Software: set of computer programs that enables hardware to perform
different tasks.
(a) Application software: set of programs used on a computer to
help carry out tasks such as writing a research paper.
(i) Ex: spreadsheets, word documents, photo editing.
(b) System Software: set of programs that enables computer’s
hardware devices and application software to work together.
(i) Ex: Operating System (OS): program that controls how
your computer system functions. Manages hardware,
such as monitor and printer, provides a means by which
users can interact with a computer.
c) Types of Computers:
i) Portable Computers:
(1) Tablet computer: ipad, microsoft surface. Multi Touch-sensitive screens.
(2) Laptop: or notebook computer; portable computer
(3) Ultrabook: full-featured but lightweight laptop
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(4) 2-in-1 PC: similar to a laptop computer, but the monitor swivels and
folds flat
(5) Chromebook: special breed of laptop that uses Google Chrome OS
ii) Desktop Computers are intended for use at a single location, so it is stationary.
(1) Most consist of a separate case or tower called the system unit that
houses the main components of the computer plus peripheral devices.
(2) Peripheral Device: a monitor or keyboard that connects to the computer
(3) All-in-One Computer: apple iMac, eliminates need for tower.
iii) Other types of computers:
(1) Mainframe: large, expensive computer that supports many users
(a) Often used in businesses that manage large amounts of data;
insurance companies
(b) Supercomputer: specially designed computer that can perform
complex calculations rapidly.
(i) Used when intensive mathematical calculations are
needed; ex: weather forecasting or atomic energy
(c) Embedded Computer: specially designed computer chip that
resides in another device, such as a car or electronic thermostat.
(d) Smartphone: apps, media players, cameras, web connectivity.
3) Keyboards and Touchscreens
a) Ways to Input data and commands:
i) Keyboard: input device you use to enter typed data and commands
(1) QWERTY: this keyboard gets its name from the first 6 letters and is
standard english language keyboard layout.
(2) Touchscreen Keyboards:
(3) Wireless keyboards: send data to computer using a form of wireless
technology that uses radio frequency.
(a) Bluetooth technology: wireless transmission standard that lets
you connect devices
ii) Touch Screens: display screens that respond to commands initiated by touching
4) Mice and Other Pointing Devices
a) Mouse: input device used to enter user responses and commands
i) Optical Mouse: uses internal sensor or laser to detect mouse movement
ii) Wireless Mouse: connect through bluetooth or usb receiver.
b) Input Devices for Laptops:
i) Touch pad or Track Pad: small, touch-sensitive area at base of keyboard
c) Input Devices for Games:
i) Joysticks, game pads, and steering wheels are also considered input devices
because they send data to computer devices.
ii) Game Controllers
5) Input and Sound Input
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