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United States (206,103)
Chemistry (10)
CHEM 1030 (4)
Chapter 4

chem1030 chapter 4 notes: Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

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CHEM 1030
Marla Spergel

Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution StoichiometrySolutionshomogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substanceso The solvent is present in greatest abundance o All other substances are solutesDissociation o When an ionic substance dissolves in water the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystal and solvates themElectrolytes strong acids strong bases soluble ionic salts o A substance that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water o A strong electrolyte dissociates completely when dissolved in waterStrong acids strong bases soluble ionic salts o A weak electrolyte only dissociates partially when dissolved in water o Soluble ionic compounds tend to be electrolytesNonelectrolyteso A nonelectrolyte may dissolve in water but it does not dissociate into ions when it does so o Molecular compounds tend to be nonelectrolytes except for acids and basesPrecipitation Reactions o When one mixes ions that form compounds that are insoluble as could be predicted by the solubility guidelines a precipitate is formedMetathesis Exchange Reactions o The ions in the reactant compounds exchange or transpose ionsAgNOKCl AgClKNO 3 aq aqs3 aq Solution Chemistry o It is helpful to pay attention to exactly what species are present in a reaction mixture ie solid liquid gas aqueous solution o If we are to understand reactivity we must be aware of just what is changing during the course of a reactionMolecular Equation o The molecular equation lists the reactants and products in their molecular formAgNOaqKClaq AgClsKNOaq 33Ionic Equation o All strong electrolytes strong acids strong bases and soluble ionic salts are dissociated into their ions o This more accurately reflects the species that are found in the reaction mixture AgaqNOaqK aqClaqAgClsKaqNOaq 33 Net Ionic Equation o To form the net ionic equation cross out anything that does not change from the left side of the equation to the rightAgaqNOaqKaqClaq AgClsKaqNOaq 33o The only things left in the equation are those things that change ie react during the course of the reactionAgaqClaq AgCls
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