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CHEM 1030 (4)
Chapter 5

chem1030 chapter 5 notes: Thermochemistry

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CHEM 1030
Marla Spergel

Chapter 5 ThermochemistryEnergythe ability to do work or transfer heat o Energy used to cause an object that has mass to move is called work o Energy used to cause the temperature of an object to rise is called heatPotential Energyenergy an object possesses by virtue of its position or chemical compositionKinetic Energyenergy an object possesses by virtue of its motionUnits of Energy o The SI unit of energy is the joule Jo An older nonSI unit is still in widespread use the calorie cal1 cal4184 J1 Cal1000 calSystemincludes the molecules we want to study Surroundingseverything else Workenergy used to move an object over some distance o wFd o where w is work F is the force and d is the distance over which the force is exertedHeat o Energy can also be transferred as heat o Heat flows from warmer objects to cooler objectsConversion of Energyenergy can be converted from one type to anotherFirst Law of Thermodynamics o Energy is neither created nor destroyed o In other words the total energy of the universe is a constant if the system loses energy it must be gained by the surroundings and vice versaInternal Energy o The internal energy of a system is the sum of all kinetic and potential energies of all components of the system we call it E o By definition the change in internal energy E is the final energy of the system minus the initial energy of the system o EEE finalinitial Changes in Internal Energy o If E0 EE finalinitial The system absorbed energy from the surroundingsThis energy change is called endergonic o If E0 EEfinalinitial The system released energy to the surroundingsThis energy change is called exergonic o When energy is exchanged between the system and the surroundings it is exchanged as either heat q or work wThat is EqwExchange of Heat between System and Surroundings
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