Chapter 1; Introduction: Matter and Measurement
Chemistry – the study matter and the changes it undergoes.
Matter - anything that has mass and takes up space.
o Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
o Each element is made of the same kind of atom.
o A compound is made of two or more different kinds of elements.
o Can be observed without changing a substance into another substance.
o Boiling point, density, mass, volume, etc.
o Can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance.
o Flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with acid, etc.
o Are independent of the amount of the substance that is present.
o Density, boiling point, color, etc.
o Depend upon the amount of the substance present.
o Mass, volume, energy, etc.
o Changes in matter that do not change the composition of a substance.
o Changes of state, temperature, volume, etc.
o Changes that result in new substances.
o Combustion, oxidation, decomposition, etc.
o Chemical Reactions
o In the case of a chemical reaction, the reacting substances are converted to new
Compounds: can be broken down into more elemental particles.
Separation of Mixtures:
o Distillation uses differences in the boiling points of substances to separate a
homogeneous mixture into its components.
o Filtration separates solid substances from liquids and solutions.
o Chromatography separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a
SI Units: Metric System
o Prefixes convert the base units into units that are appropriate for the item being
o By definition: a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample.