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Chemistry (10)
CHEM 1030 (4)
Chapter 1

chem1030 chapter 1 notes: Introduction, Matter and Measurement

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CHEM 1030
Marla Spergel

Chapter 1; Introduction: Matter and Measurement  Chemistry – the study matter and the changes it undergoes.  Matter - anything that has mass and takes up space. o Atoms are the building blocks of matter. o Each element is made of the same kind of atom. o A compound is made of two or more different kinds of elements.  Physical Properties o Can be observed without changing a substance into another substance. o Boiling point, density, mass, volume, etc.  Chemical Properties o Can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance. o Flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with acid, etc.  Intensive Properties o Are independent of the amount of the substance that is present. o Density, boiling point, color, etc.  Extensive Properties o Depend upon the amount of the substance present. o Mass, volume, energy, etc.  Physical Changes o Changes in matter that do not change the composition of a substance. o Changes of state, temperature, volume, etc.  Chemical Changes o Changes that result in new substances. o Combustion, oxidation, decomposition, etc. o Chemical Reactions o In the case of a chemical reaction, the reacting substances are converted to new substances.  Compounds: can be broken down into more elemental particles.  Separation of Mixtures: o Distillation uses differences in the boiling points of substances to separate a homogeneous mixture into its components. o Filtration separates solid substances from liquids and solutions. o Chromatography separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent.  SI Units:  Metric System o Prefixes convert the base units into units that are appropriate for the item being measured.  Temperature o By definition: a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample.
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