EDPS 260 Chapter Notes - Chapter Chapter 2: Quantitative Trait Locus, Genomic Imprinting, Intellectual Disability

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Monday, August 29, 2016
EDPS
Ch. 2
-each individuals phenotype (characteristics) is a product of both genotype and
environment
-chromosomes contain our heredity, along the lengths are genes (DNA)
-regulatory genes modify the making of proteins
-environmental factors also alter gene expression
-gametes (sex cells) are produced through meiosis (half the chromosome #)
-x chromosome is a girl, y chromosome is a boy
-fraternal or dizygotic twins result when two ova are released from ovaries
-identical or monozygotic twins develop when a zygote divides in two during the early
stages of cell duplication
-traits controlled by single genes follow dominant recessive and incomplete dominance
patterns of inheritance
-homozygous individuals have two identical alleles
-heterozygous with one dominant and one recessive are carriers of the recessive trait
-incomplete dominance both alleles are expressed in the phenotype
-x linked inheritance applies when recessive disorders are carried on the x
chromosome and effect males
-genomic imprinting one parents allele is activated that affects brain development and
health
-harmful genes arise from mutation (germline) occurs in the cells that give rise to
gametes (somatic) can occur in body cells at any time of life
-polygenic inheritance are the effects of many genes
-most chromosomal abnormalities are due to error in meiosis
-down syndrome results in physical defects and intellectual disability
-disorders of the sex chromosomes are milder than defects of the autosomes
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