EDPS 270 Chapter 16: Schools Achievement and Work

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Ball State University
Educ: Psychology
EDPS 270
: Dr.Kristine David

Schools Achievement and Work • Constructivist approach o A learner-centered approach that emphasizes the individuals active, cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher • Direct instruction approach o A teacher-centered approach characterized by teacher direction and control, high expectations for students’ progress, and maximum time spent on academic tasks • Child-centered kindergarten o Education that involves the whole child by considering both the child’s physical, cogitative, and socioemotional development and the child’s needs, interests and learning styles • Montessori approach o An educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and can move from one activity to another as they desire • Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) o Education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children (age appropriateness) and the uniqueness of each child (individual appropriateness). o Such practice contrasts with developmentally inappropriate practice, which has an academic, direct instruction emphasis focused largely on abstract paper-and- pencil activities, seatwork, and rote/drill practice activities. • Project Head Start o Compensatory PreK Edu. o Designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire skills and experiences important for school success • Top-dog phenomenon o The circumstance of moving from the top position in elementary school to the youngest, smallest, and least powerful position in middle or junior high school • Learning disabilities o Children experience difficulty learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language, the difficultly can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, and spelling o Also, may involve doing math o To be classified as a learning disability the learning problem is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, intellectual disabilities, emotional disorders, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage • Dyslexia o A learning disability that involves a serve impairment in the ability to read and spell • Dysgraphia o A leaning disability that involves difficulty in handwriting • Dyscalculia o Also, known as developmental arithmetic disorder ▪ This term refers to a learning disability that involves difficulty in math computation • ADHD o
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