EDP Chapter 1.docx

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Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 1 8/28/2013 7:18:00 PM List the age periods researchers use to study child development and cite the three domains in which development is often divided  Domains of development o Physical development- changes in body size, proportions, appearance, functioning of body systems, perceptual and motor capacities, and physical health o Cognitive development- changes in intellectual abilities, including attention, memory, academic and everyday knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativity, and language o Emotional and social development- changes in emotional communications, self-understanding, knowledge about other people, interpersonal skills, friendships, intimate relationships, and moral reasoning and behavior  Age periods o Prenatal period: from conception to birth- in this nine-month periods, the most rapid time of change, a one-celled organism is transformed into a human baby with remarkable capacities for adjusting to life in the surrounding world o Infancy and toddlerhood: from birth to 2 years- this period brings dramatic changes in the body and brain that support the emergence of a wide variety of motor, perceptual and intellectual capacities; the beginnings of language; and the first ties to others. Infancy spans the first year; toddlerhood spans the second, during which children take their first independent steps, marking a shift to greater autonomy o Early childhood: form 2 to 6 years- children learn about the wider world and master new responsibilities that increasingly resemble those they will perform as adults. Hallmarks of this period are improved athletic abilities; participation in organized games with rules; more logical thought processes; mastery of fundamental reading, writing, math and other academic knowledge and skills; and advanced in understanding the self, morality and friendship o Adolescence: from 11 to 18 years- this period initiates the transition to adulthood. Puberty leads to an adult-sied body and sexual maturity. Thought becomes abstract and idealistic, and schooling is increasingly directed toward preparation for higher education and the world of work. Young people begin to establish autonomy from the family and to define personal values and goals. Explain the role of theories in understanding child development, and describe the three basic issues on which major theories take a stand.  They provide organizing frameworks for our observations of children, they guide and give meaning to what we see  Theories that are verified by research often serve as a sound basis for practical action. Once a theory helps us understand development, we are in a much better position to know how to improve the welfare and treatment of children.  Three basic issues: o Is the course of development continuous or discontinuous?  Continuous- a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with (gradual slope)  Discontinuous- a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times (stair steps) o Does one course of development characterize all children, or are there many possible courses?  Children grow up in distinct contexts- unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change o What are the roles of genetic and environmental factors- nature and nurture- in development?  Nature- inborn biological givens  Nurture- complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth Trace historical influences on modern theories of child development, form medieval times through the early twentieth century.  Medieval era- childhood (to age 7 to 8) regarded as separate phase with special needs, protections  16 thcentury- puritan “child depravity” view
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