EDP Chapter 3.docx

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Baylor University
Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 3 9/2/2013 8:13:00 PM Cite advantages and disadvantages of having children mentioned by North American couples.  Advantages o Giving and receiving warmth and affection o Experiencing the stimulation and fun that children add to life o Being accepted as a responsible and mature member of the community o Experiencing new growth and learning opportunities that add meaning to life o Having someone carry on after one’s own death o Gaining a sense of accomplishment and creativity from helping children grow o Having someone to provide care in old age o Learning to become less selfish and to sacrifice o Having offspring who help with parents’ work or add their own income to the family’s resources  Disadvantages o Loss of freedom, being tied down o Financial strain o Family-work conflict-not enough time to meet both child- rearing and job responsibilities o Interference with mother’s employment opportunities and career progress o Worries over children’s health, safety, and well-being o Risks of bringing up children in a world plagued by crime, war and pollution o Reduced time to spend with partner o Loss of privacy o Fear that children will turn out badly, through no fault of one’s own Review current trends in family size and childbearing age, and discuss their impact on child development.  Current average number of children per family o 2.1 in the united states o 1.9 in the united kingdom o 1.8 in Australia o 1.7 in Sweden o 1.6 in Canada o 1.4 in Germany o 1.3 in Italy and japan  fewer children in a family enhances the child’s intellectual development  the more children in a family, the less time parents have to give individual attention to each child  many people believe, the ideal time for women to give birth is in their 20s because they have more energy  more and more women are having babies in their 30s  the younger the parents are the easier to get pregnant it is, the more energy they have to raise the child, and the less risk for disorder or high risk pregnancies List the phases of prenatal development, and describe the major milestones of each.  Zygote o week 1:  the one-celled zygote multiplies and forms a blastocyst o week 2:  the blastocyst burrows into the uterine lining. Structures that feed and protect the developing organism begin to form- amnion, chorion, yolk sac, placenta and umbilical cord  embryo o weeks 3-4:  ¼ inches (6mm)  a primitive brain and spinal cord appear. Heart, muscles, ribs, backbone, and digestive tract begin to develop o weeks 5-8:  1 inch (2.5 cm); 1/7 ounces (4 g)  many external body structures (face, arms, legs, toes, fingers) and internal organs form. The sense of touch begins to develop, and the embryo can move  fetus o weeks 9-12  3 inches (7.6 cm); less than 1 ounce (28 g)  rapid increase in size begins. Nervous system, organs, and muscles become organized and connected, and new behavioral capacities (kicking, thumb sucking, mouth opening and rehearsal of breathing) appear. External genitals are well-formed, and the fetus’s sex is evident o weeks 13-24 (second trimester)  12 inches (30 cm); 1.8 pounds (820 g)  the fetus continues to enlarge rapidly. In the middle of this period, fetal movements can be felt by the mother. Vernix and lanugo keep the fetus’s skin from chapping in the amniotic fluid. Most of the brain’s neurons are present by 24 weeks. Eyes are sensitive to light, and the fetus reacts to sound. o weeks 25-38 (third trimester)  20 inches (50 cm); 7.5 pounds (3,400 g)  the fetus has a good chance of survival of born during this time. size increases. Lungs mature. Rapid brain development causes sensory and behavioral capacities to expand. In the middle of this period, a layer of fat is added under the skin. Antibodies are transmitted from mother to fetus to protect against disease. Most fetuses rotate into an upside-down position in preparation for birth Define the term teratogen, and summarize the factors which affect the impact of teratogens.  Teratogens- environmental agents that cause damage during the prenatal period  Their impact varies with the amount of exposure, the genetic makeup of mother and fetus, the presence or absence of other harmful agents, and the age of the organism at time of exposure  The developing organism is especially vulnerable during the embryonic period  In addition to immediate physical damage, some health outcomes may appear later in development, and physical defects may lead to psychological consequences as well  Known or suspected teratogens o Drugs, cigarettes, alcohol, radiation, environmental pollution, and infectious diseases are teratogens that can endanger the developing organism. Currently, the most widely used potent teratogen is Accutane, a drug used to treat severe acne. The prenatal impact of many other commonly used medications, such as aspirin and caffeine, is hard to separate from other factors correlated with drug taking. Babies born to users of heroin, methadone, or cocaine are at risk for a wide variety of problems, including prematurity, low birth weight, physical defects, and breathing difficulties around the time of birth o Infants whose parents use tobacco are often born underweight and have attention, learning, and behavior problems in early childhood. Maternal alcohol consumption can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum
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