EDP Chapter 4.docx

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Baylor University
Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 4 9/4/2013 4:03:00 PM Describe the events leading up to childbirth and the three stages of labor.  Leading up to childbirth: o False labor or prelabor- brief, unpredictable contraction of the upper uterus o Lightening- placental hormone changes cause the cervix to soften, and no longer supports the weight of the baby as easily, causing the baby’s head to drop low into the uterus o Bloody show- as the cervix begins to open, the plug of mucus that sealed it during pregnancy is released, producing a reddish discharge. This signals that labor is only hours or days away  Stages of labor o Stage 1: Dilation and effacement of the cervix  Longest stage, lasting an average of 12-14 hours with the first birth and 4-6 with later births  Dilation and effacement of the cervix- as uterine contractions gradually become more frequent and powerful, they cause the cervix to open (dilate) and thin (efface), forming a clear channel from the uterus into the birth canal, or vagina  Contractions start at 10-20 minutes apart lasting 15-20 seconds  Get closer to 2-3 minutes apart and lasting up to 60 seconds  Transition- the frequency and strength of contractions are at their peak and the cervix opens completely; this is the climax of stage 1  Most uncomfortable part of childbirth, if the mother tenses or bears down with her muscles before the cervix is completely dilated and effaced, she may bruise the cervix and slow the progress of labor o Stage 2: delivery of the baby  Lasts about 50 minutes for a first baby and about 20 minutes in later births  As strong contractions continue, the mother feels the natural urge to push with each contractions, which forces the baby down and out  Crowning- the vaginal opening had stretched around the entire head o Stage 3: birth of the placenta  End of labor  Last few final contractions and pushes cause the placenta to separate from the uterine wall and be delivered in about 5-10 minutes Explain the purpose and main features of the Apgar Scale.  The Apgar scale is used to assess the newborn’s physical condition quickly  Tested at both 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth  Observes: o Appearance o Pulse o Grimace o Activity o Respiration Discuss the risks associated with oxygen deprivation, preterm, small-for- date, low birth weight, and post-term births, and review the developmental outlook for infants born under such circumstances.  Anoxia- inadequate oxygen supply o Squeezing of the umbilical cord is one cause o Placenta abruption- premature separation of the placenta is also a cause o Placenta previa- the implantation of a blastocyst so low in the uterus that the placenta covers the cervical opening, as the rd cervix dilates and effaces during the 3 trimester part of the placenta may detach o Baby fails to start breathing within the first few minutes o Some effects of anoxia can be reversed within the first 72 hours of the baby’s life, while other damage is permanent  Preterm and low-birth-weight infants o Premature- refers to babies born before the 38 thweek and weight less than 5 ½ pounds o Most newborns who weigh less than 3 ½ pounds experience difficulties that are not overcome o Brain structural abnormalities, frequent illness, inattention, over activity, sensory impairments, poor motor coordination, language delays, low intelligence test score, deficits in school learning and emotional and behavioral problems are some of the difficulties that persist through childhood and adolescence and into adulthood  Preterm infants- born several weeks or more before their due date  Small-for-date infants- below their expected weight considering the length of the pregnancy o Have more serious problems  Preterm babies as a group are at risk for child abuse Name and describe major newborn reflexes, noting the functions served by each, and discuss the importance of assessing newborn reflexes.  Rooting reflex- helps a breastfeeding baby find the mother’s nipple; only displayed when hungry and touched by another person  swimming reflex- helps a b
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