EDP Chapter 5.docx

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Baylor University
Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Describe changes in body size, body proportions, and muscle-fat makeup during the first 2 years of life.  Height and weight gains are greater during the first two years than at nay other time after birth.  Body fat is laid down quickly during the first nine months, whereas muscle development is slow and gradual  Parts of the body grow at different rates, following the cephalocaudal and proximodistal trends, resulting in changing body proportions  Cephalocaudal trend- an organized pattern of physical growth in which the head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body “head to tail”  Proximodistal trend- an organized pattern of physical growth that proceeds from the center of the body outward “near to far”  Skeletal age, a measure based on the number of epiphyses and the extent to which they are fused, is the best way to estimate the child’s overall physical maturity  At birth, the bones of an infant’s skull are separated by six gaps, or fontanels, which permit the skull to expand as the brain grows  Girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys, some ethnic differences Describe brain development during infancy and toddlerhood at the cortex.  Early in development, the brain grows faster than any other organ of the body.  Cerebral cortex- surronds the rest of the brain, resembling half of a shelled walnut. The largest brain structure- accounting for 85% of the brain’s weight and containing the greatest number of neurons and synapses  The order in which cortical regions develop corresponds to the order in which various capacities emerge in the infant and growing child  First year- auditory and visual cortexes and areas responsible for body movement  Language areas active during late infancy through the preschool years  The prefrontal cortex, lying in front of areas controlling body movement, is responsible for thought- in particular, for consciousness, inhibition of impulses, integration of information, and use of memory, reasoning, planning, and problem-solving Explain the concepts of brain lateralization and brain plasticity.  Lateralization- specialization of the two spheres  Brain plasticity-the capacity of various parts of the cerebral cortex to take over functions of damaged regions. Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize Describe research findings related to the existence of sensitive periods in brain development, and note the evidence of brain grow spurts and need for appropriate stimulation.  Human evidence o In babies born with cataracts, the longer the corrective surgery is put off, the less complete the visual recovery is o Many babies in orphanages are developmentally behind in all domains of development because of lack of stimulation Discuss the impact of heredity on early physical growth.  Twin and adoption studies reveal that heredity contributes to body size and rate of physical growth  Breast milk is ideally suited to infants’ growth needs. Breastfeeding protects against disease and prevents malnutrition and infant death in poverty- stricken areas of the world  Most infants and toddlers can eat nutritious foods freely without risk of becoming over-weight. However, the relationship between rapid weight gain in infancy and obesity at older ages is strengthening, perhaps because of a rise in unhealthy early feeding practices, in which babies are given high-fat foods and sugary drinks  Marasmus and kwashiorkor are dietary diseases
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