EDP Chapter 6.docx

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Department
Educational Psychology
Course
EDP 3326
Professor
Janet Bagby
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6 9/11/2013 5:22:00 PM Describe Piaget’s view of development, noting key concepts of his theory.  Children move through 4 stages of development between infancy and adolescence  During all stages, all aspects of cognition develop in an integrated fashion, changing in a similar way at about the same time  First stage: the sensorimotor stage- spans the first two years of life.  Piaget believed that infants and toddlers “think” with their eyes, ears, hands and other sensorimotor equipment  They cannot yet carry out many activities inside their heads  Specific psychological structures- organized ways of making sense of experience called schemes- change with age  Adaptation and organization account for changes in schemes  Adaptation o Involved building schemes through direct interaction with the environment o Made up of two complementary activities:  During assimilation, we can use out current schemes to interpret the external world  In accommodation, we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely o Balance between assimilation and accommodation varies over time o When children are not changing much, they assimilate more than they accommodate (cognitive equilibrium) o Rapid cognitive change (cognitive disequilibrium)  Organization o A process that takes place internally, apart from direct contact with the environment. Once children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking then with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system o Schemes reach a true state of equilibrium when they become part of a broad network of structures that can be jointly applied to the surrounding world Describe the major cognitive achievements of Piaget’s six sensorimotor substages. Sensorimotor substage Typical adaptive behaviors 1. reflexive schemes (birth-1 Newborn reflexes month) 2. primary circular reactions (1-4 Simple motor habits centered months) around the infant’s own body; limited anticipation of events 3. secondary circular reactions Actions aimed at repeating (4-8 months) interesting effects in the surrounding world; imitation of familiar behaviors 4. coordination of secondary Intentional, or goal-directed, circular reaction (8-12 months) behavior; ability to find a hidden object in the first location in which it is hidden (object permanence); improved anticipation of events; imitation of behaviors slightly different from those the infant usually performs 5. tertiary circular reactions (12- Explorations of the properties of 18 months) objects by acting on them in novel ways; imitation of novel behaviors; ability to search in several locations for a hidden object (accurate a-b search) 6. mental representation (18 Internal depictions of objects months-2 years) and events, as indicated by sudden solutions to problems; ability to find an object that has been moved while out of sight (invisible displacement); deferred imitation; and make- believe play Discuss recent research on sensorimotor development and its implications for the accuracy of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage.  Many studies suggest that infants display a variety of understandings earlier than Piaget believed. Some awareness of object permanence, as revealed by the violation-of-expectation method and object-tracking research, may be evident in the first few months, although searching for hidden objects is a true cognitive advance, as Piaget suggested.  Furthermore, young infants display deferred imitation, an by 10 to 12 months, they engage in analogical problem solving- attainments that require mental representation. Toddlers even imitate rationally, by inferring others’ intentions  A major advance in symbolic understanding, occurring around the first birthday, is displaced reference- the realization that words can be used to cue mental images of things not physically present. The capacity to use language to modify mental representations improves from the end of the second into the third year. By the middle of the second year, toddlers treat realistic-looking pictures symbolically. At about 2 ½ years, children grasp the symbolic meaning of video  Today, researchers believe that newborns have more built-in equipment for making sense of their world than Piaget assumed, although they disagree on how much initial understanding infants have. According to the core knowledge perspective, infants are born with core domains of thought that support rapid cognitive development  Although findings on early, ready-made knowledge are mixed, broad agreement exists on two issues. First, many cognitive changes of infancy are continuious rather than stage-like. Second, various aspects of cognition develop unevenly, rather than in an integrated fashion Describe the alternative views of cognitive development, including the core knowledge perspective.  Today, researchers believe that newborns have more built-in equipment for making sense of their world than Piaget assumed, although they disagree on how much initial understanding infants have. According to the core knowledge perspective, infants are born with core domains of thought that support rapid cognitive development  Although findings on early, ready-made knowledge are mixed, broad agreement exists on two issues. First, many cognitive changes of infancy are continuious rather than stage-like. Second, various aspects of cognition develop unevenly, rather than in an integrated fashion Describe the structure of the information-processing system, as elaborated in information-processing theory. Discuss how this approach differs from Piaget’s perspective and review the strengths and limitations of the information-processing theory of cognitive development.  Information-processing researchers want to know precisely what individuals of different ages do when faced with a task or problem. Most assume that we hold information in three parts of the mental system: the sensory register; working, or short-term, memory; and long-term memory. As information flows through the system, mental strategies operate on it so that it can be retained and used efficiently. To manage the complex activities of working memory, the central executive directs the flow of information Discuss the advancements in attention, memory, and categorization thinking place during infancy and toddlerhood.  With age, infants attend to more aspects of the environment, take information in more quickly, anticipate future events, and flexibly shift their attention from one stimulus to another. In the second year, attention to novelty declines and sustained attention improves, especially during play with toys  Young infants are capable of recognition memory. By the middle of the first year, they also engage in recall and can even retain modeled behaviors in the order in which they occurred. Both recognition and recall improve steadily with age  Infants group stimuli into increasingly complex categories, shifting from categorical distinctions based on si
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