EDP Chapter 7.docx

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Baylor University
Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 7 9/14/2013 8:04:00 AM Discuss the first two stages of Erikson’s psychosocial theory, noting the personality changes that take place at each stage.  Basic trust versus mistrust- the psychological conflict of infancy, which is resolved positively when the balance of care is sympathetic and loving.  When this happens, the infant feels confident to venture out and explore, thus he emerges from this stage well-prepared for the challenges of toddlerhood  Autonomy versus shame and doubt- the psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices  Toddlers want to do things for themselves, as they begin to show awareness of their abilities  This grows out of warm and loving parenting Trace the development of emotional self-regulation during the first two years.  Emotional self-regulation- the strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals  Limited regulation of emotions in the early months o Can be easily overwhelmed by major emotions o Depend on caretaker to sooth, calm and balance out strong emotions  2-4 months: use face-to-face play to arouse pleasure in the baby, and helps pace the baby’s reactions so they don’t get overwhelmed  4-6 months: the ability to shift attention and to engage in self- soothing helps infants control emotion  at the end of the first year, crawling and walking enable infants to regulate emotion more effectively by approaching or retreating from various situations  the way a parent interacts with an infant also determines how the child can self-regulate their own emotions  second year: growth in representation and language leads to new ways of regulating emotions o toddlers can talk, and tell you how they feel o temper tantrums occur when a toddler can not control the intense reactions they feel  toddlers whose parents are emotionally sympathetic but set limits (by not giving in to tantrums), who distract the child by offering acceptable alternatives, and who later suggest better ways to handle adult refusals display more effective anger-regulation strategies and social skills during the preschool years. Discuss the three underlying components of temperament, and identify the three temperamental styles elaborated by Thomas and Chess.  Temperament- early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity. Self- regulation refers to strategies that modify that reactivity  Easy child- quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences  Difficult child- irregular in daily routines, slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely  Slow-to-warm-up child- inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences  Three underlying components of temperament o Emotion  Fearful distress  Irritable distress  Positive affect  Soothability o Attention  Attention span/persistence o Action  Activity level Summarize the genetic and environmental influences on temperament, and describe the goodness-of-fit model.  Implied genetic foundation for individual differences in personality  Identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins (activity level, attention span, shyness/sociability, irritability)  About half of individual differences have been attributed to differences in genetic makeup  Ethnic and gender difference in temperament  Boys are more active, daring, more irritable when frustrated, slightly more impulsive and more likely to express extreme emotions  Girls are more anxious and timid  Lack or food, care, love, etc. affect temperament  The experiences of the individual affect temperament  How caretakers set boundaries affect temperament  How many other children are in a household has an affect  Goodness-of-fit model- a model that describes how favorable adjustment depends on an effective match, or good fit, between a child’s temperament and the child-rearing environment  Parenting practices that fit well with the child’s temperament help children achieve more adaptive functioning NOT ON TEST #1 Describe the Strange Situation procedure for measuring attachment, and discuss the four patterns of attachment that have been identified using this technique.  A widely used laboratory technique for assessing the quality of attachment between 1 and 2 years of age is the Strange Situation. In designing it, Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues reasoned that securely attached infants and toddlers should use the parent as a secure base form which to explore in an unfamiliar playroom. In addition, when the parent leaves, an unfamiliar adult should be less comforting than the parent. The Strange Situation takes the baby through 8 short episodes which brief separations from and reunions with the parent occur Episode Events Attachment behavior observed 1 Researcher introduces parent and baby to pl
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