EDP Chapter 8.docx

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Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 8 9/26/2013 5:57:00 AM Describe changes in body size, body proportions, and skeletal maturity during early childhood, and discuss asynchronies in physical growth  Body growth slows  Shape becomes more streamlined  Skeletal growth continues  New growth centers emerge  Lose baby teeth Discuss brain development in early childhood, including synaptic growth and pruning, lateralization and handedness, and other advances in brain development that help to establish links between parts of the brain  Significant brain growth between ages 2 and 6: o Grows to 90% of adult size o Reshaping and refining o Overabundance of synaptic connections support plasticity  Cognitive skills also increase o Physical coordination, perception, attention, memory, language, logical thinking, and imagination  Frontal lobe areas for planning and organization develop  Left hemisphere active o Language skills o Handedness  Begins as early as 1 year and strengthens  90% are right-handed  affected by experience  position in uterus  practice  culture  early damage to left hemisphere may cause shift in handedness  however, most left-handers have no developmental problems and are more likely to excel in both verbal and math skills  Differences in rate of development between the two hemispheres suggest they continue to lateralize during early childhood Describe the factors affecting physical growth and health during early childhood, noting the impact of heredity and hormones, emotional well- being, sleep habits and problems, nutrition, infectious disease, and childhood injury  Heredity and hormones o Size and growth related to parents o Genes influence pituitary gland to release  Growth hormone acts directly, but also stimulates release of insulin-like growth factor 1, which triggers cell duplication  Emotional well-being o Psychosocial dwarfism  Sleep o Contributes to body growth o Contributes to cognitive performance  Impact of lost sleep more prominent in low-SES children o Children’s poor sleep affects parent’s sleep and functioning  Nutrition o Appetite becomes unpredictable o Like familiar foods o Social environment influences food choices  Imitate admired people  Repeated exposure to foods  Emotional climate, parental pressure  Restriction increases desire  Poverty o Children who have a nutritionally deficient diet have  More attention difficulties  Poorer mental test scores  Behavior problems, especially hyperactivity and a
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