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EDP 3326 (15)
Chapter 10

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Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 10 10/2/2013 7:43:00 PM Describe Erikson’s initiative versus guilt stage, noting how this psychological conflict impacts children’s emotional and social development  Preschoolers develop a new sense of purposefulness as they grapple with Erikson’s psychological conflict of initiative versus guilt.  A healthy sense of initiative depends on exploring the social world through play and experiencing supportive child rearing that fosters a secure (but not overly strict) conscience Discuss preschool children’s self-understanding, including characteristics of self-concept, ability to understand intentions, and emergence of self-esteem  As preschoolers think more intently about themselves, they construct a self-concept that consists largely of observable characteristics and typical emotions and attitudes. Older preschoolers also have an emerging grasp of their own personalities  Securely attached preschoolers have a more positive, coherent self- concept. They experience more elaborative parent-child conversations about past events, which contribute to a clearer, elf- image  Preschoolers’ self-esteem consists of several self-judgments. Their high self-esteem contributes to a mastery-oriented approach to the environment  Self-concept relates to cognitive development  Self-esteem relates to social/emotional development Describe the development of aggression in early childhood, noting the influences of family and television, and cite ways to control aggressive behavior  In late infancy, all children display aggression from time to time  As interactions with siblings and peers increase, aggressive outbursts occur more often  By second year, aggressive acts emerge with two distinct purposes o Proactive aggression  Or instrumental aggression  Children act to fulfill a need or desire  To obtain an object, space, or social reward  Unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal o Reactive aggression  Or hostile aggression  An angry, defensive response to provocation or a blocked goal and is meant to hurt another person  Proactive and reactive aggression come in three varieties o Physical aggression  Harms others through physical injury  Pushing, hitting, kicking, or punching others, or destroying another’s property o Verbal aggression  Harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling or hostile teasing o Rational aggression  Damages another’s peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip or friendship manipulation  The same child-rearing practices that undermine moral internalization – love withdrawal, power assertion, physical punishment, negative comments and emotions, and inconsistency – are linked to aggression from early childhood through adolescence in children of both sexes and in many cultures, with most of these practices predicting both physical and relational forms  stressful life experiences cause more often forceful discipline  critical, punitive parents, cause aggressive children  57% of TV programs between 6 am and 11 pm contain violence  if children are seeing violence on TV, they think that is the way to express emotion or act towards peers  thus causing aggression  controlling aggression o see a family therapist o pair commands with reason o replace verbal insults and spanking with more effective punishments, such as time out and withdrawal of privileges o teach children how to relate and react with other students better o remove stressors that stem from poverty and neighborhood disorganization and providing families with social supports to prevent childhood aggression Describe preschoolers’ gender-stereotyped beliefs and behaviors, and discuss genetic and environmental influences on gender-role development  Gender typing is well under way in early childhood. Preschoolers acquire a wide range of gender-stereotyped beliefs, which operates as blanket rules rather than flexible guideline for behavior  Prenatal hormones contribute to boys’ higher activity level and rowdier play and to children’s preference for same-sex playmates. But parents, same-sex siblings, teachers, peers, and the broader social environment encourage many gender-typed responses. Parents apply more pressure for gender-role conformity to sons, and boys are more gender-typed than girls Describe and evaluate the major theories of gender identity development, and cite ways to reduce gender stereotyping in young children  Although most people have a traditional gender identity, some are androgynous, combining both masculine and feminine characteristics. Masculine and androgynous identities are linked to better psychological adjustment  According to social learning theory, preschoolers first acquire gender-typed responses through modeling and reinforcement, then organize these into gender-linked ideas about themselves. Cognitive-developmental theory suggests that gender constancy must be mastered before children develop g
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