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EDP 3326 (15)
Chapter 13

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Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 13 10/23/2013 7:01:00 PM Explain Erikson’s stage of industry versus inferiority, noting major personality changes  The psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively through play experiences that foster a healthy sense of purposefulness and through the development of a superego, or conscience, that is not overly strict or guilt ridden  Children who successfully resolve this conflict develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks, learn the value of division of labor, and develop a sense of moral commitment and responsibility Describe school-age children’s self-concept and self-esteem, as well as factors that affect their achievement-related attributions  During middle childhood, children’s self-concepts include personality traits (both positive and negative), competencies and social comparisons  Self-esteem differentiates further and becomes hierarchically organized and more realistic, declining as children get more competence-related feedback and compare their performance to that of others  Cultural forces and child-rearing practices affect self-esteem. Warm extended families and strong ethnic pride may contribute to the slight self-esteem advantage of African-American over Caucasian children. The authoritative child-rearing style is linked with favorable self-esteem  Children with mastery-oriented attributions hold an incremental view of ability, believing that it can be improved by trying hard, and attribute failure to insufficient effort. In contrast, children with learned helplessness attribute success to external factors, such as luck, and hold a fixed view of ability. They believe their failures are due to low ability, which cannot be modified  Supportive parents and teachers and cultural valuing of effort increase the likelihood of a mastery-oriented approach. Attribution retraining encourages learned-helpless children to believe they can overcome failure by exerting more effort Describe changes in moral understanding during middle childhood  By middle childhood, children have internalized rules for good conduct. They clarify and link moral imperatives and social conventions, considering the purpose of the rule; people’s intentions, knowledge, and beliefs; and the context of their actions. They also better understand individual rights. But when moral and personal concerns conflict, older school-age children typically emphasize fairness. Children in diverse cultures use similar criteria to reason about moral, social-conventional, and personal concerns  Children of all races pick up prevailing societal attitudes about race and ethnicity. With age, school-age children understand that people who look different need not think, feel or act differently, and prejudice typically declines. Children most likely to hold racial and ethnic biases are those who believe that personality traits are fixed, who believe that personality and who live among adults who highlight group differences. Long-term, intergroup contact may be most effective at reducing prejudice Describe changes in peer relations during middle childhood, including characteristics of peer groups and friendships and the contributions of each to social development  Peer interaction becomes more prosocial, and physical aggression declines. By the end of middle childhood, children organize themselves into peer groups  Friendships develop into mutual relationships based on trust and become more selective. Children tend to select friends who resemble themselves in age, sex, race, ethnicity, SES, personality, popularity, academic achievement, and prosocial behavior. Girls form closer, more exclusive friendships than boys  On measures of peer acceptance, popular children are well-liked by many agemates; rejected children are actively disliked; controversial children are both liked and disliked; and neglected children arouse little reaction, positive or negative, but are usually well-adjusted  Popular-prosocial children are academically and socially competent, while popular-antisocial children are aggressive but admired, perhaps for their athletic ability and sophisticated but devious social skills. Rejected children also divide into two sub-
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