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EDP 3326 (15)
Chapter 14

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Baylor University
Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 14 11/4/2013 10:01:00 PM Discuss changing conceptions of adolescence over the twentieth century, and identify the three phases of adolescence recognized in modern industrialized nations  Adolescence is the transition between childhood and adulthood.  Early theorists viewed adolescence as either a biologically determined period of storm and stress or entirely influenced by the social and cultural environment  Contemporary research shows that adolescence is a joint product of biological, psychological, and social factors  In cultures that require many years of education for successful participation in work life, adolescence is greatly extended  Three phases of adolescence o Early adolescence (11-12 to 14 years)- period of rapid pubertal change o Middle adolescence (14 to 16 years)- pubertal changes now nearly complete o Late adolescence (16 to 18 years)- young person achieves full adult appearance & anticipates assumption of adult roles Describe physical changes associated with puberty, including hormonal changes, changes in body size, body proportions, and muscle-fat makeup, and sexual maturation  Cephalocaudal trend reverses  Hormonal changes under way in middle childhood initiate puberty, on average, two years earlier for girls than for boys  The first outward sign is the growth spurt  As the body enlarges, girls’ hips and boys’ shoulders broaden  Girls add more fat, boys more muscle  Puberty brings slow, gradual improvements in gross-motor performance for girls, and dramatic gains for boys  The number of U.S. adolescents participating in regular physical activity and physical education declines sharply with age  At puberty, changes in primary and secondary sexual characteristics accompany rapid body growth  Menarche occurs late in the girl’s sequence of pubertal events, after the growth spurt peaks  After menarche occurs, growth of the breasts and of pubic and underarm hair are completed  In boys, as the sex organs and body enlarge and pubic and underarm hair appear, spermarche takes place  This is followed by growth of facial and body hair and deepening of the voice Cite factors that influence the timing of puberty  Heredity, nutrition, exercise, and overall health contribute to the timing of puberty  A secular trend toward earlier puberty has occurred in industrialized nations as physical well-being increased  In some countries, rising obesity rates have extended this trend  Young people in conflict-ridden families tend to reach puberty earlier, whereas those with warm, stable family ties do so relatively late Discuss adolescents’ reactions to the physical changes of puberty, noting factors that influence their feelings and behaviors  Girls generally react to menarche with mixed emotions, although those who receive advance information and support from family members respond more positively  Boys also react to spermarche with mixed feelings but receive less social support for pubertal changes than girls  Besides higher hormone levels, negative life events and adult- structured situations are associated with adolescents’ negative moods  Teenagers feel upbeat when with friends and in self-chosen leisure activities  Puberty is accompanied by psychological distancing between parent and child- positive cooping method to make up for not being able to leave the family during puberty  The reaction may be a modern substitute for physical departure from the family, which typically occurs at sexual maturity in primate species  Parent-adolescent conflict also reflects parents’ efforts to protect teenagers from such risks as substance use, auto accidents, and early sex Discuss the impact of maturational timing on adolescent adjustment, noting sex differences, as well as immediate and long-term consequences  Early-maturing boys and late-maturing girls, whose appearance closely matches cultural standards of physical attractiveness, have a more positive body image and usually adjust well in adolescence  Early-maturing girls and late-maturing boys, who fit in least well physically with peers, tend to experience emotional and social difficulties, which-for girls-persist into early adulthood Describe the symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, and cite factors within the individual, the family, and the larger culture that contribute to these disorders  Anorexia nervosa o Eating disorder in which young people starve themselves
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