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EDP 3326 (15)
Chapter 15

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Baylor University
Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 15 11/9/2013 3:10:00 PM Describe the major characteristics of formal operational thought  Stage of development in which they develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking  Major characteristics o Hypothetico-deductive reasoning  When faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world o Propositional thought  Adolescents’ ability to evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real-world circumstances Discuss follow-up research on formal operational thought and its implications for the accuracy of Piaget’s formal operational stage  School-age children show the glimmerings of hypothetico-deductive reasoning, although they are less competent at it than adolescents  They cannot sort out evidence that bears on three or more variables at once, and they do not grasp the logical necessity of propositional reasoning  Adolescents are better than school-age children at representing major premises precisely and at thinking of examples that contradict wrong conclusions  Adolescents and adults are most likely to think abstractly and systematically in situations in which they have had extensive guidance and practice in using such reasoning  Individuals in tribal and village societies rarely do well on tasks typically used to assess formal operational reasoning  Learning experiences in school provide adolescents with rich opportunities to acquire formal operations Explain how information-processing theorists account for cognitive change during adolescence  Information-processing researchers believe that a variety of specific mechanisms, supported by both brain development and experience, underlie adolescent cognitive development  These gains include gains in: o attention, inhibition, and knowledge o more effective strategies o expansion of metacognition o increases in cognitive self-regulation, speed of thinking, and processing capacity summarize the development of scientific reasoning during adolescence  research on scientific reasoning reveals that the ability to coordinate theory with evidence improves as adolescents solve increasingly complex problems and reflect on their thinking, acquiring more sophisticated metacognitive understanding  nevertheless, adolescents and adults continue to show a self- serving bias, applying logic more effectively to ideas they doubt than to ideas they favor  adolescents develop scientific reasoning skills in a similar, step-by- step fashion on different types of tasks  gradually, they combine separate skills, constructing general models that they can apply to many instances of a given type of problem describe cognitive and behavioral consequences of adolescents’ newfound capacity for abstract reasoning  as adolescents reflect on their own thoughts, two distorted images of the relationship between self and other appear: the imaginary audience and the personal fable.  Both are an outgrowth of gains in perspective taking and teenagers’ concern with others’ opinions of them  Adolescents’ capacity
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