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Chapter 11

PSY 1305 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Serving Size, Homeostasis, Thermostat


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 1305
Professor
Danielle Young
Chapter
11

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Basic Motivational Concepts
Motivation is defined as need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
Four perspectives for understanding motivated behaviors:
o Instinct theory (evolutionary perspective)
o Drive-reduction theory
o Arousal theory
o Maslo’s hierarchy of needs
Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology
Darwin
o Classification of many behaviors as instincts
Instinct
o Fixed, unlearned pattern throughout species
o Genes predispose some species-typical behavior
Drives and Incentives
Drive-reduction theory suggests physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive)
that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
o Drive
o Homeostasis
o Incentive
Drive reduction theory
o Need (food, water) drive (hunger, thirst) drive-reducing behaviors (eating,
drinking)
Motivational Concepts
Arousal theory
o Humans are motivated to engage in behaviors that either increase or decrease arousal
levels.
o High arousal levels motivate engagement in behaviors that will lower these levels.
o Low arousal levels motivate activities that can increase arousal.
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Flow: Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
Flow: the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in
a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity.
A Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow
o Viewed human motives as pyramid
o At the base are basic physiological needs
o At the peak are the highest human needs
The Physiology of Hunger
Humans automatically regulate caloric intake through a homeostatic system to prevent energy
deficits and maintain stable body weight.
o Stomach contractions
o Blood sugar glucose regulation
o Appetite hormones
o Set point
o Basal metabolic rate
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