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Chapter 7

PSY 1305 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Fly Fishing, Classical Conditioning, Learning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 1305
Professor
Danielle Young
Chapter
7

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Chapter Overview
Basic Concepts and Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Biological Constraints on Conditioning
Basic Learning Concepts and Classical Conditioning
What is learning?
Process of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors
How do we learn?
Associative learning
Classical conditioning-association
Operant conditioning-consequences
Cognitive learning- acquire new behaviors through information and observation, observational learning
Classical Conditioning
Watson-changed definition for psychology
Influenced by Pavlov
Theoretical goal of science of psychology is prediction and control of behavior
Behaviorism
(1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. (most
agree with one but not with two) structuralism-Titchener, functionalism- james
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov
Studied digestive system; first Russian Nobel Prize (1904)
Demonstrated associative learning via salivary conditioning
Classical conditioning: one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events (dog with the
bell and food)
Neutral stimulus (NS): a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
Unconditioned response (UR): an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation)
to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth) same as conditioned response
Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that unconditionallynaturally and automatically
triggers an unconditioned response (UR) (food) same as conditioned stimulus
Acquisition
Linking of a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins
triggering the conditioned response (initial stage of learning, works best when the condition stimulus is
presented about a second before the unconditioned stimulus)
Extinction
Diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus
(US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS) (response decreases)
Spontaneous recovery
Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Generalization
Tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit
similar responses after the response was conditioned
Discrimination
Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (which predicts the US) and other
irrelevant stimuli (being able to tell difference between different noise and bell for the dog)
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Classical Conditioning (video about little Albert and fear of animals): Pavlov’s
Legacy
1. Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning that applies to animals and humans.
2. Pavlov demonstrated how a learning process can be studied objectively.
. Pavlov’s work provided a basis for Watson’s ideas.
. Pavlov’s principles are used to influence human health and well-being.
Operant Conditioning (adjusting to the consequences of our behaviors)
Everyday behaviors are continually reinforced and shaped.
Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens a preceding response (increase)
Shaping: Gradually guiding toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior (training a
dog, giving the dog treats, shaping their behavior)
Punishment: Any event the decreases the frequency of a behavior.
Cat in the box-Thorndike, used fish as a reward (law of effect-if rewarded for behavior
see more of that behavior)
Skinner and Skinner’s Experiments
Skinner
Expanded on Thorndike’s law of effect
Developed behavioral technology and principles of behavior control
Operant Conditioning: Types of Reinforcers (more likely to make a behavior occur)
Positive reinforcement
Increases behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers (adding something)
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