SOC 1305 Chapter 2: Culture and Socialization

35 views8 pages

For unlimited access to Textbook Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

Monday, 6 February 2017
1
Chapter 2: Culture and Socialization
- Cultural meaning of objects can differ (i.e. Mark Zuckerberg wore a hoodie to his
companys initial stock offering and looked casual v Trayvon Martin wearing a hoodie
and being shot and killed for looked like he was up to no good
- Culture affects the basic attitudes, values, and behaviors we learn as a child through
socialization
- Can even affect a child’’s personalitythe individual characteristics, attitudes, needs,
and behaviors that set one person apart from another
What is Culture?
- Culturetotality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects,
and behavior
All objects and ideas within a society
- Societyfairly large group of people that live in the same territory, are relatively
independent of people outside of it, and participate in a common culture
Largest form of human group
Simplifies day-to-day interactions (i.e. can pay for large purchases with a credit
card)
- Culture industryworldwide and standardizes the goods and services demanded by
customers
CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
- Cultural universalscertain general practices developed in all societies despite their
differences
George Murdock compiled list of cultural universals (i.e. cooking, dancin, marriage,
medicine, trade)
Practices may be universal but the manner they are expressed varies from culture
to culture
ETHNOCENTRISM
- Ethnocentrismtendency to assume that ones own culture and way of life represent
the norm or are superior to all others
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Monday, 6 February 2017
2
- Conflict theorists view serves to devalue groups and to deny equal opportunities
- Functionalist view creates a sense of solidarity by promoting group pride
CULTURAL RELATIVISM
- Cultural relativismevaluation of a peoples behavior from the perspective of their
own cultures
Places a priority on understanding other cultures rather than dismissing them
- Stresses that different social contexts give rise to different norms and values
Development of Culture around the World
INNOVATION
- Innovationprocess of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
1) Discoverymaking known or sharing the existence of some aspect of reality
2) Inventionwhen existing cultural items are combined into a form that did not
exist before
GLOBALIZATION, DIFFUSION, AND TECHNOLOGY
- Globalizationworld-wide integration of government policies, cultures, social
movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of idea
- Diffusionprocess by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to
society
Can occur through a variety of means (exploration, military conquest, the influence
of mass media, tourism)
- McDonaldizationprocess through which the principles of the fast-food restaurant
have come to dominate certain sectors of society
- Technology—“cultural information about the ways in which the material resources of
the environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires
- Material culturethe physical or technological aspects of our daily lives (food, houses,
factories and raw materials)
- Nonmaterial cultureways of using material objects and to customs, beliefs,
philosophies, government, and patterns of communication
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Monday, 6 February 2017
3
- Cultural lagperiod of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling
to adapt to new material conditions
Cultural Variation
- Cultures adapt to meet specific sets of circumstances
SUBCULTURES
- Subculturessegment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs, rules,
and traditions that differs from the pattern of the larger society
- Subculture will develop an argotspecialized language that distinguishes it from the
wider society
Language and symbols offer a powerful way for a subculture to feel cohesive and
maintain its identity
COUNTERCULTURES
- Countercultureswhen a subculture conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain
aspects of the larger culture
CULTURE SHOCK
- Anyone who feels disorientated, uncertain, out of place, even fearful when immersed
in an unfamiliar culture may be experiencing culture shock
Language and Culture
- Language is the foundation of every culture
- Languageabstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture
- Thumbs-up gesture is an example of nonverbal communication
Norms and Values
NORMS
- Normsestablished standards of behavior maintained by a society
- Types of Norms
Formal normsgenerally have been written down and specify strict punishment of
violates
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class