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9-13-12.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1300
Professor
Carol Chaia Halpern
Semester
Fall

Description
Polysaccharides Thursday, September 13, 2012 8:44 AM • The 3 polysaccharides we will consider are all composed of many glucose molecules covalently bonded Starch • Long chain with occasional branching • Plant product • Grains are rich in starch • A source of energy for animals • Hydrolyzed to maltose (disaccharide of 2 glucose molecules covalently bonded) and then to glucose • Amylopectin- another type of polysaccharide similar to starch Glycogen • Liver and muscle cells make glycogen when they take glucose cells and bond them together- glucose synthesis after a meal • An animal polysaccharide • Highly branched • Storage form for glucose in the liver and the muscle cells • Muscle glycogen breakdown creates energy for cells • Liver glucose is used to release glucose into blood as needed Cellulose • Consists of long chains of glucose molecules with covalent bonds that cannot be hydrolyzed by animal cells • Therefore it cannot be a source of energy for most animals • Provides structural rigidity for plants so they can grow against gravity • Is an important component of fibers in foods that we consume • Vegetables and fruits are rich in fiber Fiber • Exercises the digestive system • Provides bulk, exercises the intestines, helps prevent diverticulosis, helps prevent hemorrhoids, is filling and can reduce food intake • Binds certain molecules and helps eliminate them • Such as cholesterol and carcinogens • Carcinogens can cause cancer if they hang near our cells, fiber traps and eliminates Lipids • Include fats, oils, waxes, etc • Main characterist
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