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BIOL 1300 (21)
Chapter

9-20-12(ch2).docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1300
Professor
Carol Chaia Halpern

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Description
Enzymes Thursday, September 20, 2012 9:01 AM • Large proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in cells • They are very specific, and do not get consumed in the reaction • Have an "active site" which is an area to which the substrate binds • The precise atomic arrangement in/of the active site is needed for this interaction which recognizes a specific substrate • Within a split second of binding, the substrate is converted to product and the enzyme molecule can bind the next substrate molecule Mechanisms of Enzyme Action • Enzymes are said to lower the activation energy for the reaction. • What does this mean? • How can an enzyme lower the activation energy? • Two basic mechanisms: • Juxtaposition of substrate molecules • Inducing stress in the substrate- physical stress, i.e hydrolyze sucrose a bond needs to be broken, substrate binds to enzyme, enzyme pulls on covalent bond so it breaks • With enzyme lower activation energy   • Non-Protein Portions of Enzymes • Called co-factors in enzyme action- located somewhere near the active site • Most commonly these are vitamins or minerals that are part of our nutritional requirements • These cofactors often participate in the catalytic process and are essential for the biological activity of the enzyme Regulation of Enzyme Activity •
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