Behaviorist Perspectives

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Department
Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
Course
APSY 2240
Professor
Julia Whitcavitch- Devoy
Semester
Spring

Description
Behaviorist Perspectives • Humans are intelligent rats learning life mazes • Ivan Pavlov ­ Classical conditioning: the concept that after the repeated pairing of an unconditioned  stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response and a neutral stimulus, the previously  neutral stimulus can come to elicit the same response as the unconditioned stimulus ­ Generalization: the tendency for similar stimuli to evoke the same response ­ Discrimination: the concept that a conditioned response will not occur for all possible  stimuli, indicating that an animal can learn to tell the difference between different stimuli ­ Extinction: the process by which the frequency of the organism’s producing a response  gradually decreases when the response behavior is no longer followed by the  reinforcement • John Watson ­ Behaviorism: the learning approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of  observable behavior ­ Little Albert ­ Systematic desensitization: gradually extinguishing a phobia by causing the feared  stimulus to become dissociated from the fear response • BF Skinner ­ Operant conditioning: the changing of behavior by manipulating its consequences ­ Skinner Box: an enclosure in which an experimenter
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