Chapter 20 – The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform
The Concert of Europe prevented one nation from taking large actions in international affairs without
consulting the other powers.
Nationalism was the biggest thing in Europe in the 19 and early 20 century.h
- Anation is composed of a group of people joined together by a common language, culture, and
history who are administered by the same government.
Liberalism – people who sought to establish legal equality, religious tolerance, and freedom of the press.
They wanted to elect a representative body for a government and to have a written constitution.
- Liberals were usually wealthy people associated with commercial life but were excluded from
- They believed in careers being open to talent.
- They didn’t want democracy, but political power for those that held property.
- Wanted an economic structure where people could use whatever talents or property they had to
Adams Smiths The Wealth of Nations – put forth the idea of laissez-faire economics, which favored
economic growth through free enterprise. It did not support government interference in the market.
Thomas Malthus’Essays on Population – believed that the population would eventually be too big for the
food supply, and believed that it would be due to the working class and their higher wages
Ricardo’s Principals of Political Economy – believed that if wages were raised, parents would have more
children, who would eventually enter the labor market and a surplus of workers would lower wages. This
argument supported employers in their argument not to raise wages.
Prince Klemes von Metternich – anAustrian chancellor that masterminded resistance to liberalism and
nationalism in Central Europe.
Postwar Repression in Britain:
- 1799, CombinationActs outlaw workers unions and wage protection is removed
- Mass meetings were called for reform of the Parliament
- In retaliation, the government passed the CoercionActs, that suspended habeas corpus against
Peterloo Massacre – royal tro