Chapter 27 – The InterwarYears: The Challenge of Dictators and Depression
Germany’s humiliation and resentment for theAllies grew after the Paris settlement.
After the war, there was a Great Depression in Europe. This was caused by a financial crisis due
to the war, a crisis in production and good distribution in the world market, and because there
was no strong economic leader.
- Almost every country was in debt and owed money to other countries
The 1920s also saw the establishment of an independent Irish state.
Under the economic policy of war communism, the RedArmy won in Russia.
In 1921, Lenin created the New Economic Policy, in which peasants could farm for a profit and
would pay taxes. Lenin believed the peasantry held the key to the revolution.
After Stalin died, a struggle ensued between the two powerful men in Russia: Stalin and Trotsky
Trotsky – urged rapid industrialization, increase agricultural production through voluntary
collectivization of farms for poor people, believed party members should be able to criticize the
Stalin – pressed for continuation of the NEP and slow industrialization, ended up being victor.
He urged that Russian socialism could be achieved alone and didn’t depend on revolutions in
1927 – the Party Congress decided to push for rapid industrialization, marked a firm departure
from the NEP and a rejection of free-market operations
- Stalin’s goal was to have a Soviet Union overtake of productive capacity of its enemies
- Most workers were in bad buildings with inadequate sanitation and nutrition
Kulaks – prosperous peasants that was hoarding grains, but they were the most efficient farmers
Collectivization – the replacement of private peasant farms with huge state-run and state-owned
farms called collectives that put the Communist party in charge of the farms
- Stalin portrayed the Kulaks as the main problem with agriculture
Great Purges – people accused of sabotages and disloyalties were executed. In the courts, many
people were interrogated and falsely confessed to crimes they didn’t commit and were executed.
Millions received no trial and were shot or sent to labor camps. German Democracy and Dictatorship:
The Weimar republic took power in Germany and signed the Treaty of Versailles.
- The Weimar constitution guaranteed civil liberties and provided for direct election
Hitler consolidated his power by capturing full legal authority, crushing other political parties,
and getting rid of Nazi enemies.
Chapter 28 – World War II
Germany began to rearm themselves and made a new army with half a million men
1936 – Hitler breaks the Versailles treaty and sends men into the demilitarized Rhineland, but the
League of Nations didn’t do anything about it
Anschluss – the union of Germany andAustria, which was another violation that the west
remained passive about
On Sept. 29, Germany, Italy, France, and Britain met at Munich and Hitler was given everything
he demanded –APPEASEMENT.
In 1939, the Russians met with Hitler and created the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact. It divided
Poland between the two areas. Two days later, Germany invaded Poland and Britain and France
declared war against Germany, beginning WWII.
Blitzkreig – lighting warfare that included fast-moving armed column supported by airpower.
Germany quickly defeated Poland using these tactics.
Until spring 1940, the Western front was quiet. But inApril Hitler invaded Norway and
Denmark. The Dutch and the Belgians gave up quickly because Hitler had basically destroyed
them. British and French armies were forced to flee Belgium.
France quickly fell to Mussolini because the old generals weren’t accustomed to new war tactics.
Luftwaffe – air strikes by the Germans against London beginningAugust 1940. The British air
force was strong though and defeated Hitler even though most of London was destroyed.
Hitler decided to attack Russia in 1941.Although Germany killed many Russian soldiers and
made it far into the country, they ultimately did not succeed because the German general wanted
to retreat from Moscow before the winter.
Japan allied themselves with Germany and Italy. America was unwilling to commit to the war. December 7, 1941 – Japan launched an air attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The next day, the US
and Britain declared war on Japan, and then Germany and Italy declared war on the US.America
was not prepared for war though.
The main powers against Germany and Italy were thenAmerica, Britain, and the USSR
By 1945, theAllies were using constant bombing to destroy Germany and its morale
June 6, 1944 – D-Day,American, British, and Canadian troops land on the coast of Normandy,
but the coast was heavily fortified.
Battle of the Bulge – a battle in Belgium that was a huge loss for the Germans
In the East, the Russians quickly swept through the Germans into Berlin, and Hitler committed
suicide in April 1945.
After WWII ended, theAmericans began “island-hopping” to take over the Pacific Islands. The
Japanese government still refused to