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Chapter 7-9

Organizational Behavior Chapter 7-9 Notes!

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Boston College
Management & Organization
MGMT 1021

Study Guide for Organizational Behavior Final Chapters 7 & 8 Part 1: Models of Decision Making Decision making: identifying and choosing solutions that lead to a desired result  (1 Question) The Rational Model: logical four­step approach to decision making. (2 Questions) 1. Identifying the problem a. Problem­ exists when the actual situation and the desired  situation differ 2. Generating alternative solutions a. For routine decisions alternatives are readily available through  decision rules 3. Selecting a solution a. Want to maximize the expected utility of an outcome b. People vary in their preferences for safety or risk c. Ethics should be considered d. Evaluating alternatives assume they can be judged according to  some criteria e. Assumes valid criteria exists f. Each alternative can be compared to these criteria g. Decision maker actually uses the criteria 4. Implementing and evaluating the solution a. After solution is implemented, the evaluation phase is used to  evaluate its effectiveness b. Optimizing: choosing the best possible solution Conflict: one party perceives its interests are being opposed or set back by another  party. (one question) Functional Conflict: serves organization’s interests. Dysfunctional conflict: threatens organization’s interests (one question on functional v. dysfunctional) Antecedents of Conflict (2 questions) • Incompatible personalities or value systems • Overlapping or unclear job boundaries • Competition for limited resources • Interdepartment/intergroup competition • Inadequate communication • Interdependent tasks • Organizational complexity • Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules • Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure • Collective decision making • Decision making by consensus • Unmet expectations • Unresolved or suppressed conflict Why People Avoid Conflict (1 Question) Harm Failing Rejection hurting someone else Loss of relationship Getting What you want Anger Intimacy Being seen as selfish Saying the wrong thing The Conflict Iceberg (The potential to move above and beyond the conflict, to have genuine empathy for  others) Chapter 7 & 8: Part II Simon’s Normative Model (3 Questions on descriptions) Decision Making is characterized by: 1. Limited information processing 2. Use of judgmental heuristics 3. Satisficing Bounded rationality: constraints that restrict decision­making Limited Information Processing:  • Tendency to acquire manageable rather than optimal amounts of  information • Difficult for managers to identify all possible alternative solutions Judgmental Heuristics: rules of thumb or shortcuts that people use to  reduce information processing demands Availability heuristic: tendency to base decisions on information readily  available in memory Representativeness heuristic: tendency to assess the likelihood of an event  occurring based on impressions about similar occurrences. Satisficing: choosing a solution that meets a minimum standard.  Stages of the Creative Process (2 Questions) • Preparation • Concentration • Incubation • Illumination • Verification Group Involvement ( 1 question) Minority dissent: extent to which group members feel comfortable disagreeing  with other group members, and the extent to which group members  participate in decision making Participative Movement (1 Question) ­ involving employees in various forms of decision making • setting goals • making decisions • solving problems • making changes in the organization Group Problem Solving Techniques (2 Questions) Consensus:  presenting opinions and gaining agreement to support a  decision Brainstorming: process to generate a quantity of ideas Rules for Brainstorming (1 Question) 1. defer judgment 2. build on the idea of others 3. encourage wild ideas 4. go for quantity over quality 5. be visual  6. stay focused on the topic 7. one conversation at a time Chapter 9 A Perceptual Model of Communication (2 Questions) *Know the other model we went over in the beginning of the year SEE Slide 9­5 A Perceptual Process Model of Comm
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