MGMT1021 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Emotional Contagion, Emotional Labor, Hindsight Bias

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17 Oct 2016
Topic 4: Perception (p117-124)
Introduction to Perception
Perception is the process of taking in, interpreting, and taking actions based on
information that is obtained from the environment
Determine what constitutes reality for individuals
What is Perception?
Involves selecting a subset of sensory information
What is perceived as reality also becomes limited
Not to be confused with Heuristics
Rules by which people make decisions
Economic based, optimizing value and highest profit
Perception is the process of taking in and acting on raw data in an
Not based on economics
Where does it come from?
Experience, knowledge base, values, emotions, motivation and
personality of the perceiver shape what information is recognized and how
that information is prioritized, organized, interpreted, and acted upon
That Being Perceived
Novelty- what is new or different, first impression
Attention- being consciously aware of something or someone
The Process of Perception
Select and retrieve small bits of information
Common Limitations and Biases
Selective perception is where information and its recall becomes consistent with
people’s values and experiences while information that disconfirms people’s
values and experience is ignored
Some info recalled and some info ignored
Common biases
Hindsight bias
individual perceives that the liTopic 2: Individual Characteristics
Introduction to Individual Characteristics
The impact of personal characteristics on what people think, feel, and do is the study of
individual difference
Focusing on physical differences supplies only a limited and often biased view of
Competencies: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities
knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for performing different jobs, functions,
or tasks
Individuals differ in skills and in how they experience and express emotions
Show performance differences
Critical thinking / problem solving
Creativity / innovation
Teamwork / collaboration
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Written communications
Lifelong learning pursuit / self direction
Information technology application
Ethics / social responsibility
English language (spoken)
Writing in English (grammar, spelling, etc)
Developing Competencies
Organizations use systematic programs to assure that individuals working are
equipped with the right competencies
Match / hire employees to match specific job requirements
Continue to assess individual performance
Also provide training and guided experiences
Competency Models
Offers a comprehensive way to identify the groups of competencies associated
with organizational performance and involves clusters of competencies
Identify certain individuals who fit a certain profile or to identify skills needed by
employees within the organization
Organization-wide - competencies for employees across positions and
levels of organization
Function-based - competencies that apply to a single business function
within the organization
Role-based - competencies for a specific role and include behavioral
Job-based - developed for a specific job
Emotions in the Workplace
Emotions- strong feelings with a short duration, viewed as irrelevant or
disruptive to smooth organizational functioning
Play into both a positive and negative role
Result from mood which is broader and lasts longer
Emotional contagion- capacity for emotions, mood, and affect spread in a
Originate from home, school, work, and social situations
Felt vs Displayed Emotions and Emotional Labor
Emotions help in processing information, making decisions, when working
in a group, or when interacting with others
Working in an organizations often requires displaying emotions that are
different from what people actually feel
Displayed emotions are visible
Felt emotions are feelings actually felt
When there is a wide gap between what an employee actually feels and
what is appropriate to display at work, emotional labor occurs
Emotional Intelligence
The capacity to be aware of one’s own emotions and the emotions of
others, manage emotions, and respond to emotions in an appropriate way
Involves being able to recognize and respond to social and emotional
Can be developed and changed
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