MGMT1021 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Reciprocal Liking, Cognitive Bias, Norm (Social)

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18 Oct 2016
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Topic 7: Persuasion, Influence, and Impression Management (p233-242)
Introduction to Persuasion, Influence, and Impression Management
People use purposeful techniques in the workplace for many reasons including attempts
to change people’s behavior, sell ideas, gain resources, or shape impressions.
These techniques are called persuasion tactics are used to wield influence in social
contexts such as negotiations, distribution of organizational resources like salary or time
off, or even in workload distribution in group projects
Variety of bases of social power
The use of influence can be seen as a form of organizational politics, which is any
behavior by people in organizations, based on social power and designed to get one’s
way
Tactics of Persuasion
Saying “yes” to a request
Effective means of exerting influence in a wide variety of contexts
Works by getting the individuals who targets of persuasion to forego careful evaluation
and logical analysis of requests in favor of more mindless compliance
Such compliance is gained because the targets of persuasion
Rely on cognitive biases and heuristics, which are shorthand decision making
rules or assumptions
Are motivated by human needs, needs to be liked or respected as a means of
self-esteem enhancement
Or give in to the pressure of social norms, which are widely agreed upon
customs, such as showing deference to superiors, because doing so helps them
to feel secure and part of a group
Liking
A form of persuasion that impacts people’s beliefs and behaviors
It convinces people to buy products
“Like” button on Facebook
Humans possess a general need for self esteem enhancement, which may be
met by gaining the liking or respect of others
People tend like those who like them, phenomenon called reciprocal liking.
People are prone to a cognitive bias like the halo effect which leads them to
assume that people who are attractive and likeable will have other desirable traits
as well
Reciprocity
A persuader does you a favor (that you may not want or ask for) and then asks
for a specific favor in return (which you feel obligated to agree to)
Many times the only way to repay the favor is through an act that has far more
value than the original favor
The social norm of reciprocity is powerful because it is consistently demonstrated
and confirmed in many societies
Social norms drive behavior because conforming to them allows individuals to
feel secure and part of a larger social group
Social Proof
In an ambiguous situation where appropriate action is not readily apparent, we
look to others to tell us what we should do
Even if those others are merely recommendations from experts, or someone is
telling us that “everyone is doing it”
Conforming to social norms allows individuals to feel more secure because they
are part of a larger group
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