MGMT1021 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Adhocracy, Femininity, Collectivism

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Topic 12: Culture (p431-441)
Introduction to Culture
Organizational culture describes underlying values, beliefs, and assumptions that are
shared by people within an organization
Aspects of Organizational Culture
Culture emerges over time and can be traced to the origins and attributed to the
founders
Organizational culture is the patterns of shared beliefs, values, and behaviors within an
organization and cannot be accounted for by traditional organizational factors such as
organizational reporting systems, structures, and policies
Culture shapes how individuals perceive, think, and feel
Cultures create rituals, myths, and stories of the organization and provide a means for
individuals and organizations to identify with and interpret symbols and events
Three Dimensions of Culture
Schein’s Model shows that culture reveals itself in
artifacts
that represent the objects than can be readily observed in
organizations
Physical artifacts are easy to identify and include art, buildings,
decor, dress, and other material objects
Behavioral artifacts include ceremonies, rituals, traditions, and
customs
Verbal artifacts include jargon, nicknames, stories, myths, villains,
and metaphors
Espoused values are the second dimension
Describe what the members of the culture say they believe
Expressed
Basic assumptions are the most revealing dimension of culture
and are the accepted, taken for granted, unquestioned beliefs and
assumptions shared by the members of the culture
Assumptions include beliefs about
Reality- events can be rational and fair or random and
unpredictable
Nature of time- focus of attention is on short term events or long
timeframe
Space- the world is vast and diverse or small and similar
Human nature- people are naturally motivated or need incentives
to work hard
Interpersonal relationships- fellow employees can be friends or
should be in professional, distant relationships
Iceberg Metaphor of Culture
Helps illustrate the nature of culture in organizations
Above the waterline, an iceberg appears to be a small piece of ice, perhaps so
small that it even floats on top of the water
Perceptions are deceiving, underneath what is visible lies a large body of ice
Metaphor brings into focus an obvious part of an organization like policy, formal
structure, espoused value, work procedures, and the like
However, metaphor reveals what is “below the water line,” what is often hidden
from view
Purpose of Culture
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