MGMT1021 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Kurt Lewin, John Kotter, Organizational Culture

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14 Nov 2016
Topic 13: Change, Innovation, and Stress (p470-478)
Introduction to Change, Innovation, and Stress
It reviews change and outlines several tensions inherent in the change process
Innovation and creativity and their role in organizational change are presented
Stress is described as an inevitable, although often limiting, consequence of change in
Organizational Change
Organizational change is any modification, planned or unplanned, that alters a structure,
process, or outcome in an organization
Change in organizations occurs for many reasons
The model of change presents tensions that emerge within the change process: the
tensions between internally versus externally driven change, planned versus reactive
change, and incremental versus rapid change
Organizations often prompt change themselves by establishing new goals or instituting
new procedures
When organizations initiate change, its internally driven
Change can also be unexpected, caused by external forces
Changes in the regulatory environment, shifts in the market or customer trends, or
emergence of technologies serve as some of the external changes that force change
Organizations deal with change by either planning or responding to change
Planned change is intentional change and instituted within the organization
Unplanned change arises when organizations fail to plan or are caught off guard
by unanticipated events
Timeframe of change
Incremental change occurs slowly and unfolds over time, which involves
shifts in thinking and challenges the basic assumptions of the
organization’s culture
Rapid change is more likely to involve quick surface level changes to
policies, procedures, or resolutions to immediate problems, but can also
eventually result in incremental change
Models of Change
Continuous process
Models are developed in order to better explain the change process and to
improve the effectiveness of change efforts
Each model is based on a different set of assumptions about the nature of
change and where in the organization change is initiated
All models of change promote change management -the process of moving from
the current state in an organization to a future state guided by active
management of the change process
Force Field Model of Change
Psychologist Kurt Lewin suggested a force field model that has been widely used
in organizational change efforts
It is a model of change that considers the variables that promote change and
variables that promote change prevent change
In order to implement change, an organization needed to identify that existing
forces that are driving change, such as new customer demands and competitors,
and to also identify constraining forces, such as organizational culture, poor
leadership, or financial constraints
Most factors that drive change and constrain it are psychological and cultural
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