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Chapter 7-9

Second Treatise of Government - Chapter 7-9 Questions.docx

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PHIL 1071

Chapter VII, VIII, IX 1. What defines a “civil” or “political” society and why does it follow that absolute monarchy is inconsistent with civil society, according to Locke? • Asociety where every one of the members has given up his natural power and given it up into the hands of the community in all cases that exclude him not from appealing for protection to the law established by it. o Community becomes umpire to all private judgments o Men having authority from community for execution of rules o Preservation of property of all members of society • An absolute monarchy is inconsistent with civil society because where-ever any person are, who have no authority to appeal to, for the decision of any difference between them, they are still in the state of nature; and so is every absolute prince, in respect of those under his dominion o No one to judge him indifferently o Only judges others because loves him self and wants profit from it; example of a person not wanting his animals to fight o No man in civil society exempt from laws of it – why monarchy fails • To think men are foolish, even though safe from cats, are content with being devoured by lions – should be protected from those that offer most risk • State of nature worked so well because of reciprocity which does not exist in a monarchy, because can’t do anything about monarch taking away from them 2. How and for what reason do people give up their natural liberties and submit to political authority? • One does this by agreeing with other men to join and unite into a community for their comfortable, safe, and peaceable living amongst one another, in a secure enjoyment of their properties o They want a greater security against any that are not of it 3. Explain Locke’s argument for why the individual who joins a civil society necessarily puts himself into an obligation to submit to the will of the majority. • The reason for why is that it is necessary that the community move as a body one way; and that the greater force carries it, which is the consent of the majo
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