HISTORY 7B Chapter Notes - Chapter 31: Henry Kissinger, Camp David Accords, Arms Control

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Chapter 31: From "The Age of Limits" To The Age of Reagan
The Frustrations of the Early 1970s: effected the confidence, nationalism, and optimism that came from
the post war era
Defeat in Vietnam
Watergate
Decay of the American economy
o Some Americans responded to these problems by announcing the arrival of the "age of
limits"
Americans would have to learn to live with less
Politics and Diplomacy After Watergate
The Ford Custodianship
Gerald Ford- president after Nixon
o Had to try and rebuild confidence in government after Watergate
o Had to restore prosperity during economic difficulties
o Pardoned Nixon a month after he took office
The pardon angered the public that was eager to see Nixon face criminal charges
This caused a decline in Ford's popularity- he never fully recovered
o Most Americans considered Ford to be an honest man
o To curb inflation, Ford called for largely ineffective voluntary efforts
o Supported high interest rates, opposed increased federal spending, resisted pressures for a tax
reduction
o Had to deal with rising unemployment, high inflation, slow economic growth: known in 1974
and 1975 as "Stagflation"
Economic Problems:
o Energy Crisis
Aftermath of Arab iol embargo of 1973, OPEC raised the price of oil by 400% in 1974
Henry Kissinger - Secretary of State, continued Nixon's foreign policies
1974: Ford met with Leonid Brezhnev in Siberia, signed an arms control accord
Henry Kissinger - produced a new accord by which Israel agreed to return large
portions of the occupied Sinai to Egypt. The two nations pledged not to resolve further
differences by force.
1976 Election:
o Republicans: Ford face Ronald Reagan, leader of the party's conservative wing
Reagan spoke for many Americans on the right who opposed any agreements with
communists.
Ford won the party nomination
Democrats: Jimmy Carter
Former governor of Georgia
Appealed to the unhappiness with Washington by offering honesty, an outsider
skepticism of federal government
o Unhappiness with the economy and disenchantment with Ford enabled Carter to win the
presidency
o Carter: 50% of popular vote, 297 electoral votes
The Trails of Jimmy Carter
Style of leadership considered by Americans to be self-righteous and inflexible
Carter devoted much of his time to problems of energy and economy
Wanted to reduce unemployment by raising public spending and cutting federal taxes
o Unemployment declined, inflation soared because of increases in energy prices by OPEC
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