THE UNITED KINGDOM:
Their politics remain untouched since the 17 thcentury, though
reform is still occurring
Worth studying because:
It was the birthplace of industrialization, which fueled
Although it has no written constitution, many nations have
adopted some of their institutions
Tories are conservatives
Third way: The new way that left and right have been forced
to go due to coalitions that must be formed
It’s a primarily homogeneous state. Only 5% are immigrants
from former colonies
Geographic isolation provided protection from conflict in the
rest of Europe
Separation ended with the completion of the Channel Tunnel
Development, compared to the rest of the world, has been
gradual and peaceful
Many invasions at the beginning of the country’s history
Common Law: System of precedent and local costumes
rather than written law.
Normans took over and created feudalism in 1066
o Created system of obligation, although undemocratic
Magna Carta: 1216 document that stated the king was
subject to the same law and limited power of the British
o Cause = no royal absolutism
Due to the divide of the church and state, Parliament gained
additional power, while the church suffered a loss of it.
English Civil Was was caused by supporters of James I vs.
supporters of the parliament. James I wanted to raise taxes
without asking parliament and this created a crisis.
o Parliament won. James I was executed.
From 1649-60, England operated under Oliver Cromwell as a
republic since there was no monarch.
o Ruling became a dictatorship
The glorious revolution turned England into a constitutional
Overseas expansion in 16 thcentury
o By the early 20 thcentury the empire had dimished
dramatically The Industrial Revolution and Democratization:
It was the first to industrialize
Rise of a prosperous middle class who was politically active
led to democratization
Being the 1 also brought repercussions and made it
experience economic decline
Originally, the parliament was meant for the elite:
o The House of Lords was the upper house,
representing the aristocracy
o The House of Commons was the lower house, and it
represented the lower aristocracy and the merchant
Two factors that made parliament stronger and the crown
o 1. Political Parties: The Whigs vs. the Tories
o 2. Suffrage: By 1921 everyone could vote
Labor party initiated the welfare state
Hung Parliament: Parliament in which no party holds the
majority of seats.
o Led to coalitions
The Majoritarian politics allows the majority of parliament to have
Tradition keeps the