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Chapter 10

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Binghamton University
PSYC 111
Justin Olds

Chapter 10: Reasoning and Intelligence 1. Analogy: as a Basis for reasoning: a. Analogies are similarities in behavior, functions, or relationships in otherwise different entities or situations. b. Scientists and also nonscientists often use analogies to make sense of observations and generate new hypotheses. c. Analogies are commonly used in legal and political persuasion. d. The Miller Analogies Test and Raven’s Progressive Matrices measure an individual’s ability to see and apply analogies. 2. Inductive Reasoning: (hypothesis construction) a. In inductive reasoning, a proposition is inferred on the basis of specific observations or facts. We are generally good at inductive reasoning, but are susceptible to certain biases. b. The Availability Bias: i. Our tendency to give too much weight to information that comes more easily to mind than does our relevant information. ii. Relate to false fame effect: heavily publicized things are more available to consciousness recall than are the less publicized events. (p.356) c. The Confirmation Bias: i. Leads us to try to confirm rather than disconfirm our current hypothesis. Logically, a hypothesis cannot be proven, only disproven. ii. Two different ways researchers have demonstrated confirmation bias:  Interview and determine introvert and extrovert and determined that people ask questions where yes answers would go towards their hypothesis. This bias, coupled with the natural tendency of interviewees to respond to all such questions in the affirmative, gave most subjects confidence in the initial hypothesis, regardless of which hypothesis that was or whom they had interviewed. (Skov & Sherman, 1986; Snyder, 1981)  Doctors will misdiagnose people because they’ll have a hypothesis of what your ailment is and then find evidence to support the hypothesis. (Groopman 2007) d. The Predictable-World Bias: i. Leads us to arrive at predictions through induction even when events are actually random. ii. Example: games of pure chance; gambling. Even when people consciously “know” that the results are purely chance. 3. The Concrete Nature of Deductive Reasoning: a. Deductive is the derivation of conclusions that must be true if the premises are true. Syllogisms are classic examples of deductive- reasoning problems. i. Syllogisms: presents a major premise (propositions) and a minor premise that you must comb
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