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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Outline: Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids.docx

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CAS BI 108
Francis Monette

BI108 Chapter 3 Outline: Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids 3.1—What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? • Functional groups give specific properties to biological molecules • Isomers have different arrangements of the same atoms • The structures of macromolecules reflect their functions • Most macromolecules are formed by condensation and broken down by hydrolysis Summary: Four kinds of macromolecules distinguish living tissues: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Most are polymers—chains of linked monomers. Very large polymers are called macromolecules. Biological molecules carry out a variety of life-sustaining functions. 3.2—WhatAre the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins • Peptide linkages form the backbone of a protein • The primary structure of a protein is its amino acid sequence • The secondary structure of a protein requires hydrogen bonding • The tertiary structure of a protein is formed by bending and folding • The quaternary structure of a protein consists of subunits • Shape and surface chemistry contribute to function • Environmental conditions affect protein structure • Protein shapes can change • Molecular chaperones help shape proteins Summary: Proteins are polymers of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids in a protein determines its primary structure. Secondary, terti
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