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CAS BI 108 (112)
Chapter 8.1

Chapter 8.1 Notes

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CAS BI 108
Francis Monette

8.1: What Physical Principles Underlie Biological Energy Transformations? Metabolism: sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in a biological system • Involve energy changes. • Energy is the capacity to do work, or the capacity for change. There are two basic types of energy 1. Potential Energy: energy of state/position (stored energy) Ex: chemical bonds, concentration gradient 2. Kinetic Energy: energy of movement, does work Ex: heat causes molecular motions, break chemical bonds There are two basic types of metabolism Anabolic Reactions: link simple molecules to form complex • These types of reactions require an input of energy. Energy is captured in the chemical bonds that are formed. • The captured energy is stored (potential energy) • Ex: glycosidic bond (condensation/dehydration) Catabolic Reactions: break down complex molecules into simpler ones. Energy that is stored in chemical bonds is released • Ex: sucrose is hydrolyzed Catabolic and anabolic reactions are often linked—the energy released in catabolic is used to drive anabolic i.e. The energy released by the breakdown of glucose (catabolic) is used to drive anabolic reactions such as the synthesis of triglycerides The first law of thermodynamics: Energy is neither created nor destroyed Total energy before and after is the same. The potential energy present in the chemical carbohydrates and lipids can be converted to potential energy in the form ofATP. This can then be converted into kinetic energy to do mechanical work. The second law of thermodynamics: Disorder tends to increase Diso
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