8.3: What are Enzymes?
The more negative the free energy, the further the reaction proceeds toward completion.
However, free energy tells us nothing about the rate of a reaction.
Catalysts: substances that speed up reactions without themselves being permanently altered.
Only increases the rate of the reaction, which allows equilibrium to be reached more rapidly.
Enzymes: biological catalysts, another type is ribozymes
To speed up a reaction, an energy barrier must be overcome
Must break the covalent bond between glucose and fructose. This is hard to do unless there is an
input of energy to initiate the reaction.
Transition State: reactive mode
Activation Energy: energy input required to reach transition state
Energy barrier represents the amount of energy needed to start the reaction (activation energy)
Transition State Intermediates: have higher free energies than either the reactants or the
products. Their bonds may be unstable.
Enzymes bind spec