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CAS HI (30)
Chapter 30

CAS HI 101 Chapter 30: Chapter_30--The_West_at_the_Dawn_of_the_21st_Century-2


Department
History
Course Code
CAS HI 101
Professor
Barak Caine
Chapter
30

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Mr.$Dunbar$
AP$European$History$
Chapter$30:$The$West$at$the$Dawn$of$the$Twenty>First$Century$$
$
Section(One:(The(Twentieth.Century(Movement(of(People(
Section(Overview(
o The$Second$World$War$and$subsequent$economic$transformation$of$the$Continent$brought$extensive$
migrations,$particularly$from$the$countryside$to$the$cities.(
! Examples$of$twentieth$century$forced$migrations(
Forced$removal$of$Russian$peasants(
Nazi$deportation$and$execution$of$European$Jews$as$well$as$those$who$migrated$to$Israel(
Millions$of$Germans,$Hungarians,$Poles,$Ukrainians,$Bulgarians,$Serbs,$Finns,$Chechens,$
Armenians,$Greeks,$Turks,$Balts,$and$Bosnian$Muslims$were$displaced.(
! European$city$dwellers$today(
Today,$except$for$Albania,$at$least$one>third$of$the$population$of$every$European$nation$lives$
in$large$cities.(
In$Western$Europe,$city$dwellers$are$approximately$75$percent$of$the$population.(
Displacement(Through(War(
o World$War$II$created$a$refugee$problem$as$nearly$46$million$people$were$displaced$in$central$and$Eastern$
Europe$and$the$Soviet$Union$alone$between$1938$and$1948.(
! War$ravaged$cities$in$Germany$and$Eastern$Europe(
! Nazis$had$moved$hundreds$of$thousands$of$foreign$workers$into$Germany$as$slave$laborers.(
! Millions$were$prisoners$of$war.(
! Hundreds$of$Baltic,$Polish,$and$Yugoslav$prisoners$found$asylum$in$Western$Europe.(
o Changes$in$borders$after$the$war$uprooted$many$people.(
! Poland,$Czechoslovakia,$and$Hungary$forcibly$expelled$millions$of$ethnic$Germans$from$their$
territories.(
This$transfer$of$12$million$Germans$in$effect$“solved”$the$problem$of$German$minorities$living$
outside$of$Germany’s$national$boundaries.(
! Hundreds$of$thousands$of$Poles$were$transferred$within$Poland’s$new$national$borders$from$territory$
the$Soviet$Union$annexed.(
External(and(Internal(Migration(
o Between$1945$and$1960,$approximately$half$a$million$Europeans$left$Europe$each$year.(
! Some$governments$encouraged$migration$because$they$were$afraid$that$their$economies$would$not$
be$able$to$provide$adequate$employment$for$all$their$citizens.(
! Decolonization$in$the$postwar$era$led$many$European$colonials$to$return$home,$to$Europe,$from$
overseas.(
Decolonization$also$led$non>European$inhabitants$of$the$former$colonies$to$migrate$to$Europe.(
o Great$Britain$received$thousands$of$immigrants$from$its$former$colonies$in$the$
Caribbean,$Africa,$and$the$Indian$subcontinent.(
o France$received$many$from$its$empire$in$Africa,$Indochina,$and$the$Arab$world.(
o National$Front$emerged$in$France$in$opposition$to$North$African$immigration(
! Background$on$National$Front(
Extreme$right>wing$group(
Led$by$Jean>Marie$Le$Pen$(b.$1928)(
Sought$to$exploit$the$resentment$many$working>class$voters$felt$toward$North$African$
immigrants.(
! In$2002,$Le$Pen$won$enough$votes$to$become$one$of$two$candidates$in$the$run>off$election$for$the$
French$presidency.(
Le$Pen$lost$overwhelmingly$to$Jacques$Chirac$(b.$1932)(
o Germany,$Denmark,$Austria,$Netherlands,$and$Italy$experienced$friction$sue$to$immigration.(
The(New(Muslim(Population(
o Generally$speaking,$little$immigration$occurred$between$Europe$and$the$Muslim$worldor$vice$versaand$
Europe’s$relationship$with$the$Islamic$world$was$that$of$colonized$and$colonizer.(

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! Europeans$encountered$Muslims$as$subjects$in$colonies$such$as$Algeria,$Egypt,$the$Indian$
subcontinent,$sun>Saharan$Africa,$and$the$East$Indies.(
In$all$these$regions,$Christian$missionaries$clashed$with$Muslim$religious$teachers.(
o By$the$end$of$the$twentieth>century,$however,$a$sizeable$Muslim$population$settled$in$Europe.(
! Two$reasons$for$Muslim$migration$to$Europe(
European$economic$growth(
o Muslims$recruited$to$work$in$Europe$since$a$labor$shortage$existed$during$the$postwar$
economic$boom$in$Europe.(
o Turkish$“guest$workers”$were$recruited$to$work$in$West$Germany$(
Decolonization$and$the$search$for$a$better$life(
o Pakistanis,$Indians,$and$Muslims$from$East$Africa$settled$in$Britain.(
o The$Algerian$War$brought$many$Muslims$to$France(
! Both$Muslim$immigrants$and$their$host$countries$viewed$their$relationship$as$temporary$and,$
therefore,$put$little$thought$into$assimilation;$therefore,$Muslims$formed$separate$communities.(
Except$for$Britain,$European$governments$made$it$difficult$for$Muslim,$or$any$other,$
immigrants$to$participate$in$civic$life.(
Problems$with$non>assimilation(
o Many$Muslim$children$in$Europe$never$learn$European$languages$well.(
o Many$Muslim$women$living$in$Europe$remain$confined$to$their$homes.(
! Many$of$the$largely$unskilled$jobs$that$Muslim$immigrants$came$to$Europe$to$fill$no$longer$exist.(
Most$Muslim$immigrants$in$Europe$are$neither$highly$skilled$nor$professionally$educated.(
! As$economic$growth$in$Europe$slowed,$many$politicians$have$blamed$the$Muslim$immigrant$
populations.(
o Muslim$threat$to$security$in$Europe(
! Both$Turkish$Muslims$living$in$Germany$and$Pakistani$Muslims$in$Great$Britain$have$been$involved$in$
radical$Islamic$groups.(
! When$the$French$government$attempted$to$exert$more$control$over$its$Muslim$population$in$2005,$
many$of$the$immigrant$youth$carried$out$riots$in$various$parts$of$France.(
European(Population(Trends(
o Modern$European$population$has$stabilized$in$such$a$dramatic$way.(
! Europeans$are$having$so$few$children$that$they$are$no$longer$replacing$themselves.(
European$average$woman$birth$rate$by$year(
o 1950s2.1$children(
o 1980s1.9$children(
o Presently1.4(
In$Mediterranean$countries$like$Greece,$Italy,$and$Spain,$the$rate$is$even$lower.(
o US$population$continues$to$rise$steadily.(
! US$women$average$birth$rate$presently$2.1(
o Implications$of$falling$birthrate(
! Europe$faces$the$prospect$of$an$aging$population.(
Unlikely$to$produce$economic$innovation(
Internal$European$market$will$shrink(
o Part$of$Europe’s$influence$on$the$world$in$the$nineteenth$and$early$twentieth$centuries$was$simply$a$
consequence$of$the$size$of$its$population.(
$
$
Section(Two:(Toward(A(Welfare(State(
Section(Overview(
o During$the$decades$spanning$the$Cold$War,$the$US$involvement$in$Vietnam,$and$the$Soviet$domination$of$
Eastern$Europe,$the$nations$of$Western$Europe$achieved$unprecedented$economic$prosperity.(
o The$end$of$World$War$II$saws$vast$constitutional$changes$in$much$of$Western$Europe,$except$for$Portugal$and$
Spain$which$remained$dictatorships$until$the$mid>1970s.(
o The$construction$of$stable,$liberal,$democratic$political$frameworks$became$a$major$goal$of$their$postwar$
political$leaders,$as$well$as$the$United$States.(
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o Many$people$came$to$believe$that$the$government$ought$to$ensure$economic$prosperity$and$social$security$
and,$the$success$at$doing$so$they$hoped$would$stave$off$the$kind$of$turmoil$that$had$brought$on$tyranny$and$
war$and$could$lead$to$communism.(
Christian(Democratic(Parties(
o Except$for$the$British$Labour$Party,$the$vehicles$of$the$new$postwar$Europe$were$not$the$democratic$socialist$
parties.(
! Both$communist$and$conservatives$opposed$democratic$socialism.(
o Christian$democratic$parties,$usually$leading$coalition$governments,$introduced$the$new$policies.(
! Largely$Roman$Catholic$leadership$and$membership(
! Democracy,$social$reform,$economic$growth,$and$anti>communism$were$their$hallmarks.(
o After$1947,$communist$parties$were$systematically$excluded$from$Western$European$governments.(
The(Creation(of(Welfare(States(
o Causes$leading$to$the$creation$of$vast$welfare$systems(
! Economic$dislocation$and$unemployment$stemming$from$World$War$II(
! The$fact$that$so$many$people$participated$in$the$war$effort,$changed$the$minds$of$many$regarding$the$
creation$of$welfare$states.(
o History$of$social$legislation$in$Europe(
! Bismarck$had$introduced$social$insurance$in$Germany(
! Many$people$believed$unemployment$was$a$temporary$problem$and$largely$the$individual’s$fault.(
o After$World$War$II,$the$concept$emerged$that$social$insurance$against$predictable$risks$was$a$social$right$and$
should$be$available$to$all$citizens.(
! In$Britain,$William$B.$Beverige$(1879>1963)set$forth$this$concept$in$1942.(
He$explained,$if$medical$care,$old>age$pensions,$and$other$benefits$were$available$to$all,$they$
would$not$become$a$device$to$redistribute$income$from$one$part$of$the$population$to$another.(
Britain$constructed$a$welfare$state$from$1945>1951$under$the$Labour$ministry$of$Clement$
Attlee$(1883>1967).(
National$Health$Service(instituted$in$Britain$during$this$era,$but$not$in$France$and$Germany$until$
the$1970s.(
Resistance(to(the(Expansion(of(the(Welfare(State(
o Three$periods$of$Western$European$attitudes$toward$the$welfare$state(
! First$period$(1945>1950s)(
Reconstruction$period(
! Second$period$(mid>1950s$>1970)(
Generally$steady$and$expanding$economic$growth(
! Third$period$(mid>1970s>present)(
High$inflation,$slow$economic$growth,$high$unemployment(
o Margaret$Thatcher$(prime$minister$from$1979>1990)$and$the$British$Conservative$Party$resistance$to$the$
welfare$state(
! cut$taxes$and$rolled$back$many$socialist$programs$adopted$after$WWII(
! privatized$industry$that$the$Labour$Party$governments$had$nationalized(
! curbed$the$power$of$trade$union(
o Slow$down$in$population$rate$caused$the$elderly$and$incapacitated$to$outnumber$able>bodied$workers$which$
made$the$British$incapable$of$supporting$itself.(
! Many$programs$have$been$cut$and$continue$to$be$scruitinized.(
(
Section(Three:(New(Patterns(in(Work(and(Expectations(of(Women(
Section(Overview(
o Since$World$War$II,$in$all$social$ranks,$women$have$begun$to$assume$larger$economic$and$political$roles.(
o Despite$enormous$gains$during$the$second$half$of$the$twentieth$century,$and$despite$the$collapse$of$those$
authoritarian$governments$whose$social$policies$inhibited$women$from$advancing$into$the$mainstream$
society,$gender$inequality$remained$a$major$characteristic$of$the$social$life$of$Europe$at$the$opening$of$the$
twenty>first$century.(
Feminism(
o Feminism$in$Europe$has$set$forth$a$new$agenda.(
! Modern$feminism$has$been$less$a$political$movement$and$more$a$social$movement(
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