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Chapter 12

CAS HI 101 Chapter 12: Chapter_12_Outline--Religious_Wars


Department
History
Course Code
CAS HI 101
Professor
Barak Caine
Chapter
12

Page:
of 9
Mr.$Dunbar$
AP$European$History$
Chapter$12:$The$Age$of$Religious$Wars$
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o First$half$of$the$sixteenth$century$saw$religious$conflict$confined$to$central$Europe$as$Lutherans$and$
Zwinglians$$attempted$to$secure$freedoms$and$rights$for$themselves.(
o Religious$conflict$shifted$in$the$second$half$of$the$fifteenth$century$as$Calvinists$struggled$for$recoginition$in$
the$western$European$nations$of$France,$the$Netherlands,$England$and$Scotland.(
o The$Peace$of$Augsburg$(1555)$made$Lutheranism$“legal”$in$the$Holy$Roman$Empire$but$it$did$nothing$for$
other$Protestant$groups$like$Calvinists$and$Anabaptists.(
o Following$the$conclusion$of$the$Council$of$Trent,$the$Catholic$church’s$Jesuits$launched$a$global$counter
offensive$against$Protestantism.(
o Calvinism$was$attractive$to$proponents$of$political$decentralization$who$opposed$hierarchical$rule,$in$
principle,$whereas$the$Roman$Catholic$Churchan$institution$devoted$to$one$headfound$absolute$
monarchy$congenial.(
o The$Catholic$Church$Counter$Reformation$found$the$baroque$style$of$art$appealing$as$it$presented$like$in$a$
grandiose,$threedimensional$display$of$raw$energy.(
! great$baroque$artists(
Peter$Paul$Rubens(
Gianlorenzo$Bernini(
o Protestant$artists$were$restrained$as$can$be$seen$in$the$gentle$portraits$of$the$Dutch$Mennonite,$Rembrandt$
van$Rijn.(
o When$the$religious$wars$erupted$in$the$sixteenth$century,$the$intellectuals$moved$to$preach$tolerance$more$
quickly$than$the$politicians.(
! Sebastian$Castellio$comments$on$the$killing$of$Michael$Servetus$ordered$by$John$Calvin(
“To$kill$a$man$is$not$to$defend$a$doctrine,$but$to$kill$a$man.”(
! Michel$de$Montaigne$asked,$“What$do$I$know?”$which$reflects$a$sense$of$skepticism.(
! The$Lutheran$Valentin$Weigel$advised$people$to$search$within$themselves$for$religious$truth(
o Rulerslike$Elizabeth$Iwho$tended$to$subordinate$theological$doctrine$to$political$unity,$urging$tolerance,$
moderation,$and$compromise$became$known$as$politiques.(
o During$this$period$of$religious$wars,$Catholic$and$Protestant$subjects$struggled$against$one$another$$for$
control$of$the$crown$of$France,$the$Netherlands,$and$England.(
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o French$Protestants$are$known$as$Huguenots,$a$term$derived$from$Besancon$Hugues,$the$leader$of$Geneva’s$
political$revolt$in$the$1520s.$
o Trouble$for$Protestants$in$France$
! The$capture$of$the$king$of$France,$Francis$I,$by$the$forces$of$Holy$Roman$Emperor$Charles$V$at$the$
Battle$of$Pavia$ion$1525$provided$a$basis$for$the$first$wave$of$Protestant$persecutions$in$France.$
! In$1534Protestants$plastered$Paris$and$other$cities$with$antiCatholic$placards$which$led$to$the$mass$
arrest$of$the$Protestants$found$responsible.$
! In$1540,$the$Edict$of$Fontainebleau$subjected$French$Protestants$to$the$Inquisition.$$$
o The$French$monarchy$remained$a$staunch$opponent$of$Protestants$until$the$ascension$to$the$throne$of$Henry$
IV$of$Navarre$in$1589.$
o France$experienced$a$period$of$weakness$when$King$Henry$II$was$mortally$wounded$when$he$was$accidentally$
pierced$by$a$lance$during$a$tournament.$
! $Three$powerful$families$in$France$saw$the$chance$to$control$France$and$plotted$to$take$the$throne$
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The$Bourbons$were$powerful$in$the$south$and$west$of$France;$the$MontmorencyChatillons$
controlled$the$center$of$France;$the$strongest$family,$the$Guises,$were$dominant$in$eastern$
France.$
o The$Guise$family$was$closely$linked$to$the$French$monarchy$and$were$associated$with$
militant,$reactionary$Catholicism.$
o The$Bourbon$and$MontmorencyChatillon$families$developed$strong$Huguenot$
sympathies$
! Conspiracy$of$Amboisethese$two$families$plannedbut$never$carried$out
the$kidnapping$of$Francis$II$of$France$from$his$Guise$advisors.$
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o Although$Huguenots$made$up$only$onefifteenth$of$the$population,$Huguenots$held$important$geographic$
areas$and$were$heavily$represented$among$the$more$powerful$segments$of$French$society.$
o Decentralization$
! Many$Huguenots$wanted$a$principle$of$territorial$sovereignty$like$that$extended$by$the$Peace$of$
Augsburg$to$the$German$princes$in$the$Holy$Roman$Empire.$
! Calvinism$justified$and$inspired$political$resistance$in$France.$
o Spirituality$was$neither$the$only,$nor$always$the$main,$reason$for$becoming$a$Calvinist$in$France$during$the$
second$half$of$the$sixteenth$century.$
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o Following$the$death$of$Francis$II,$the$queen$mother,$Catherine$de$Medicis,$became$regent$for$her$younger$son,$
Charles$IX.$
o At$a$meeting$in$Poissy,$Catherine$unsuccessfully$attempted$to$reconcile$Protestant$and$Catholic$factions.$
! Catherine$believed$this$attempt$would$upset$the$Guises$so$she$began$talks$with$Theodore$Beza$and$
Coligny,$two$Protestant$leaders$
! In$1562,$the$crown$issued$the$January$Edict$which$granted$Protestants$freedom$to$worship$publicly$
outside$townsalthough$only$privately$within$them.$
o Royal$toleration$ended$in$1562$when$the$duke$of$Guise$surprised$a$Protestant$congregation$at$Vassy$in$
Champagne$and$massacred$many$worshipers.$$This$event$marked$the$beginning$of$the$French$wars$of$religion.$
o The$crown,$wary$of$the$power$of$the$Guise$family,$supported$the$Catholic$side$of$the$conflict.$
o The$Peace$of$SaintGermainenLaye$
! First$French$war$of$religion$(15621563)$
Duke$of$Guise$was$assassinated$
Troops$from$Hesse$and$the$Palatinate$in$the$Holy$Roman$Empire$fought$with$the$Huguenots$
Huguenot$leader$Conde$was$killed$and$leadership$passed$to$Coligny$
! The$Peace$of$Saint$GermainenLaye$ended$the$third$phase$of$the$war$in$which$the$power$of$the$
Protestant$nobility$was$acknowledged$and$Huguenots$were$granted$religious$freedoms$within$their$
territories$and$the$right$to$fortify$their$cities.$
! Following$the$peace,$Charles$IX$became$closer$to$the$Bourbon$family$and$the$Huguenots,$and$Coligny$
became$one$of$his$most$trusted$advisors.$
! Catherine$began$to$plot$with$the$Guise$family$because$she$feared$the$threat$that$the$growing$power$
of$Protestants$posed$to$the$crown.$
o The$Saint$Bartholomew’s$Day$Massacre$
! On$August$24,$1572$Coligny$and$3,000$fellow$Huguenots$were$butchered$in$Paris.$$Within$three$days,$
coordinated$attacks$killed$an$estimated$20,000$Huguenots$throughout$France$
The$Huguenot$Henry$of$Navarre$had$just$married$the$king’s$sister$four$days$before$this$event.$
Coligny$had$been$shot$by$an$assassin$but$only$wounded$after$the$wedding.$
Catherine$convinced$King$Charles$IX$that$a$Huguenot$coup$was$at$hand$and$that$the$crown$
must$align$with$the$Guises$to$prevent$it.$
o Protestant$Resistance$Theory$
! Initially,$Protestants$practiced$obedient$subservience$to$worldly$authority$as$encouraged$in$the$Bible.$
! In$1550,$Lutherans$in$Magdeburg$published$an$influential$defense$of$the$right$of$lower$authorities$to$
oppose$the$emperor’s$order$that$all$Lutherans$return$to$the$Catholic$fold.$
! Calvin$also$condemned$willful$disobedience$and$rebellion$against$lawfully$sanctioned$governments$but$
also$taught$lower$magistrates$that$they$had$the$right$to$oppose$tyrannical$higher$authority.$
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! John$Knox$
Scottish$reformer$who$wrote$First,Blast,of,the,Trumpet,against,the,Terrible,Regiment,of,
Women$(1558)$which$declared$that$removal$of$a$tyrant$was$a$Christian$duty.$
! Three$major$works$of$resistance$theory$
FrancoGallia$by$Francis$Hotman$
On,the,Right,of,Magistrates,over,their,Subjects$by$Theodore$Beza$
Defense,of,Liberty,Against,Tyrants$by$Philippe$du$Plessis$Mornay$
45"(+%1"($&(I&,"2(&9(J"'2K(&9(L83822"$
o Henry$III$was$the$last$of$Henry$II’s$sons$to$rule$France$
! Henry$III$attempted$to$institute$moderate$religious$reforms$on$France$
He$received$support$from$a$growing$body$of$neutral$Catholics$and$Huguenots,$who$put$the$
political$survival$of$France$above$its$religious$unity.$
! The$Peace$of$Beaulieu$in$May$1576$granted$Huguenots$almost$complete$religious$and$civil$freedom.$
Within$seven$months$the$Catholic$League$forced$Henry$to$agree$to$attempt$to$impose$
absolute$religious$unity$in$France$
! Protestant$and$Catholic$fighting$in$France$resumes$
Henry$of$Navarrea$legal$heir$to$the$French$throne$by$virtue$of$his$descent$in$a$direct$male$
line$from$Louis$IXled$the$Protestants.$
The$Catholic$League$was$led$by$the$Guise$family$and$was$supported$by$the$Spanish.$
Day$of$the$Barricades$
o Henry$III$attempted$to$rout$the$Catholic$League$with$a$surprise$attack$in$1588$but$
failed$and$was$forced$to$flee$Paris.$
o Henry$III$had$both$the$duke$and$cardinal$of$Guise$assassinated.$
o As$a$result,$Henry$III$was$forced$to$strike$an$alliance$with$the$Protestant$Henry$of$
Navarre.$
! A$Dominican$friar$killed$King$Henry$III$as$he$and$Henry$of$Navarre$plotted$to$attack$the$Guise$
stronghold$of$Paris$
! Consequently,$the$Bourbon$Huguenot$Henry$of$Navarre$succeeded$the$childless$Valois$king$to$the$
French$throne$as$Henry$IV$
o King$Henry$IV$$
! When$a$Protestant$rose$to$the$throne$in$France,$the$Spanish$King$Philip$II$sent$Spanish$troops$into$
France.$
! The$Spanish$invasion$actually$helped$Henry$IV$take$hold$of$France$because$the$majority$of$people$in$
France$saw$his$rightful$ascent$to$the$throne$as$more$important$than$his$Protestant$views.$
! Henry$IV$was$a$politique$$
He$believed$a$royal$policy$of$tolerant$Catholicism$would$be$the$best$way$to$achieve$peace.$
He$publicly$abandoned$his$Protestant$beliefs$and$embraced$Catholicism,$the$traditional$and$
majority$religion$of$his$country.$
! Edict$of$Nantes$(April$13,$1598)$
Recognized$minority$religious$rights$
Gave$Huguenots$the$freedom$of$public$worship,$the$right$of$assembly,$admission$to$public$
offices$and$universities,$and$permission$to$maintain$fortified$towns.$
! A$Catholic$fanatic$assassinated$Henry$IV$in$May$1610$
Henry$IV’s$legacy$is$that$he$laid$the$foundations$for$the$transformation$of$France$into$the$
absolute$state$it$would$become$under$Cardinal$Richelieu$and$Louis$XIV.$
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o Until$England$defeated$the$Spanish$Armada$in$1588,$Philip$II$was$the$most$powerful$monarch$in$Europe.(
o Philip$was$heir$to$the$intensely$Catholic$and$militarily$supreme$western$Habsburg$kingdom.(
! New$World$Riches(
regular$arrival$in$Seville$of$bullion$from$the$Spanish$colonies$in$the$New$World$(
o great$silver$mines$had$been$opened$in$present$day$Bolivia$and$Mexico$in$the$1540s(
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