Focuses on the shifting distribution of power among states. Instills a pragmatic appreciation of the role of power but also warns that states will suffer if they overreach: liberalism. Highlights the rising number of democracies and the turbulence of democratic transitions. Highlights the cooperative potential of mature democracies, especially when working together through effective institutions, but it also notes democracies" tendency to crusade against tyrannies and the propensity of emerging democracies to collapse into violent ethnic turmoil: constructivism. Illuminates the changing norms of sovereignty, human rights, and international justice, as well as the increased potency of religious ideas in politics. Stresses that a consensus on values must underpin any stable political order, yet it also recognizes that forging such a consensus often requires an ideological struggle with the potential for conflict. Ir theory shapes and informs the thinking of the public intellectuals who translate and disseminate academic ideas.