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Chapter 8

CAS PH 160 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: William Faulkner, Enumerative Induction, Antiarrhythmic Agent


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
CAS PH 160
Professor
Tian Cao
Chapter
8

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Homework Assignment 6 Heather Buja
PH160, Section A4
Chapter 8 Examples and Notes
8.1 #3, #9
8.3 #2
8.4 #3
8.6 #5
8.7 #3, #6
8.8 #5, #6
8.9 Follow instructions to identify errors relevant for 8.8 #5
8.10 #5, #10
8.1: (1) Identify target group, sample, and relevant property; (2) indicate whether the
argument is strong or weak; (3) if weak, indicate whether the problem is sample that’s too
small, not representative, or both
#3: Doctors used to think that anti-arrhythmic drugs were the cure for irregular
heartbeats. They overprescribed these drugs and fifty thousand patients died. Doctors used
to believe that the cure for ulcers was a bland diet, but that turned out to be wrong too.
Every new treatment we see these days sounds great. But history tells us that they will all
turn out to be worthless.
(1) Target group: Doctors
Sample: Doctors who failed to cured irregular heartbeats because they provided a
false cure, doctors who incorrectly believed a bland diet cured ulcers
Relevant Property: wrong (failed) cures or treatments
(2) Weak Argument
(3) Sample size is too small. There are only two incidents cited where doctors came up
with a wrong treatment for such diseases and there are many right cures that
doctors have found, as well as wrong one for the vast amount of diseases that exist.
#9: Two hundred samples of water taken from many sites along the Charles River show
unsafe concentrations of toxic chemicals. Obviously the water in the Charles River is
unsafe.
(1) Target group: Water in the Charles River
Sample: 200 samples of water taken from the Charles River
Relevant Property: unsafe (toxic)
(2) Strong Argument
8.3: (1) Determine whether the poll results offer strong support for the pollster’s
conclusion, and, if they don’t, (2) specify the source of the problem (sample too small,
unrepresentative, nonrandom sampling)
#2: Anita conducts a survey to determine if Americans are willing to support the arts by
contributing money directly to local theater groups. One night she and her assistants
interview five hundred people who are attending a performance of a musical at the city’s
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