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Chapter 7

Birkland Chapter 7 Policies and Policy Types.pdf

3 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
CAS PO 331
Professor
Kate Krimmel

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Rules, laws, and judicial decisions
Right to education, healthcare
Lack of definitive statement is an implicit policy
Policy is a statement by the gov't of what it intends to do
What is a "Policy"?
I.
Constitutional; highly visible and hard to amend (2/3 of each House and Senate and 3/4 of state
legislatures)
The public criticizes that there are too many regulations but the Federal Register serves as a
transparency of the gov't to the public
All laws are published after public comments are taken on the Federal Register
The most important ones are codified in the Code of Federal Regulations
Once a law is enacted, they are published in the Federal Register
Most regulations begin with "Notice of Proposed Rulemaking" that alerts people of the possibility of a new
regulations and the comments are organized on the Federal Register
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
Regulations can have an implication on needy people
Security screeners after 9/11 became more thorough
People at the frontline of public service; police, teachers and social workers that affect regulation
management
After Mapp v. Ohio, police officers have been altering their testimonies of evidence
Police interest and the decision interests conflict; priority is to arrest and collect evidence, not
protect the suspects' civil rights
Laws can change the behaviors of the bureaucrats
Security screeners targeting Middle Eastern travelers
Laws can also alter "purposive behaviors"
Regulations on street-level bureaucrats
After the crash of ValuJet flight 592 in 1996, cargoes had to meet a higher standard for fire resistance
Federal Aviation Admin first posted on Notice o Proposed Rulemaking, accepted comments and then
agreed to adopt a law
Congress would have been bogged down by peoples' desires to comment and input
Case Study: An Example of the Regulatory Process
Codifying and Publicizing Policies
II.
How interests are organized and how various interests react to different kinds of policies
Education, health, transportation
Did not help us understand the underlying politics
Early policy typologies separated into topical categories
Knowing the typology of the regulations helps us understand and predict the conflicts that may arise from
implementing and how to prevent it
Farm subsidies and federal spending on local infrastructure
Important for congressmen to bring home the "bacon" from the "pork barrel" for reelection, many
will negotiate and support ("horse trading") each others' causes because everyone benefits
politically ("logrolling")
This kind of policies may be problematic in a democracy because of the heavy influence of interest
groups, making it "interest group liberalism"
Distributive Policies: Granting some benefit to a certain group
i.
Ensures the training and competency
Licensing professionals such as lawyers and doctors
-
Competitive regulatory policy: "Limit the provision of goods and services to one or a few deliverers"
1)
Regulatory Policies: Govern the conduct of business
ii.
Distributive, Regulatory, and Redistributive Policies
a.
Policy Types
III.
Birkland Chapter 7: Policies and Policy Types
Saturday, January 18, 2014
10:22 AM
PO 331 Page 1

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Description
Birkland Chapter 7: Policies and Policy Types Saturday, January 18, 2014 10:22 AM I. What is a "Policy"? ○ Policy is a statementby the gov't of what it intendsto do  Rules, laws, and judicial decisions  Lack of definitive statementis an implicit policy □ Right to education, healthcare II. Codifying and Publicizing Policies ○ Levels of policies and publication  Constitutional;highly visible and hard to amend (2/3 of each House and Senate and 3/4 of state legislatures) ○ Once a law is enacted, they are published in the Federal Register  The most important ones are codified in the Code of Federal Regulations □ All laws are published after public comments are taken on the Federal Register  The public criticizes that there are too many regulationsbut the Federal Register serves as a transparency of the gov't to the public ○ Most regulations begin with "Notice of Proposed Rulemaking"that alerts people of the possibility of a new regulations and the commentsare organized on the Federal Register ○ Regulationscan have an implication on needy people  TemporaryAssistancefor Needy Families (TANF) and Supplemental Nutrition AssistanceProgram (SNAP) ○ Regulationson street-level bureaucrats  People at the frontline of public service; police, teachers and social workers that affect regulation management □ Security screeners after 9/11 becamemore thorough  Laws can change the behaviors of the bureaucrats □ After Mapp v. Ohio, police officers have been altering their testimonies of evidence □ Police interest and the decision interests conflict; priority is to arrest and collect evidence, not protect the suspects' civil rights  Laws can also alter "purposive behaviors" □ Security screeners targeting Middle Eastern travelers ○ Case Study: An Example of the RegulatoryProcess  After the crash of ValuJet flight 592 in 1996, cargoes had to meet a higher standard for fire resistance  Federal Aviation Admin first posted on Notice o Proposed Rulemaking, acceptedcomments and then agreed to adopt a law  Congress would have been bogged down by peoples' desires to comment and input III. Policy Types ○ How interests are organized and how various interests react to different kinds of policies ○ Early policy typologies separatedinto topical categories  Education, health, transportation  Did not help us understand the underlying politics a. Distributive, Regulatory, and Redistributive Policies  Knowing the typology of the regulationshelps us understand and predict the conflicts that may arise from implementing and how to prevent it i. Distributive Policies: Granting some benefit to a certain group □ Farm subsidiesand federal spending on local infrastructure □ Important for congressmen to bring home the "bacon"from the "pork barrel" for reelection, many will negotiateand support("horse trading") each others' causes because everyone benefits politically ("logrolling") □ This kind of policies may be problematicin a democracy because of the heavy influenceof interest groups, making it "interest group liberalism" ii. Regulatory Policies: Govern the conduct of business 1) Competitiveregulatorypolicy: "Limit the provision of goods and services to one or a few deliverers" - Licensing professionals such as lawyers and doctors ◊ Ensures the training and competency ◊ Ensures the training and competency ◊ Barriers to the market, creating a higher pay - Awarding of cable vision and radio franchises to local gov'
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