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CAS CH 109 (19)
Chapter 9

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CAS CH 109
Sean Elliott

Savan Shah CH 109 Chapter 9 Outline Chapter 9: Thermodynamics – The 2 and 3 Laws nd rd - Spontaneous Change • Spontaneous Change  Change that has tendency to occur without needing to be driven by an external influence oNatural tendency to occur oEnergy and matter tend to disperse in a disorderly fashion oEntropy  Measure of disorder (High entropy = High disorder) oEntropy is a state function oFactors that increase entropy:  Mixing with other substances  Spreading into greater volume  Temperature increase oHeating increases thermal disorder o***Change in entropy equations*** oLiquid vaporizes until its partial pressure has reached vapor pressure  Vapor pressure increases until it is equal to external pressure (boiling point)  Entropy of vaporization  Change in entropy per mole of molecules when substance changes from liquid into vapor (*FORMULA*) • Third Law of Thermodynamics The entropies of all perfect crystals approach zero as absolute temperature approaches zero • S = k ln W  W = Number of ways that the atoms or molecules in sample can be arranged and yet still give rise to same total energy • Residual Entropy  Entropy of sample at T = 0 arising from p
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